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Title of Thesis

Naghmana Akhtar
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Food and Nutrition(Home Economics) University of Punjab, Lahore
Home Economics
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
NUTRITIVE VALUE, CHICKPEAS, LENTILS, CHILDREN, anti-nutritional factors, Cepulac, Pulcelac, Legumes, Chickpea Milk

Chickpeas and Lentils, being economical source of protein, calories, certain vitamins and minerals are an important component in the diet people of various ages. These undergo substantial quantitative and qualitative "losses as a result of insect infestation during post harvest handling, processing and storage. Their suitability and acceptability by infants and children in the form of processed diet during different phases of health and disease are studied in detail.

Bold grains varieties can be milled more easily than small and medium varieties. The maximum dhal yield was observed in chickpea variety CM-44 (74%). The losses of dhal yield during storage ranged from (6.4 - 19%) in different containers. The maximum yield in dhal was observed in earthen pot.

Germination is the least expensive rind best way to improve the nutritive value of legumes. The initial viability percentage in chickpea variety was found in CM-44 (70%) and lentil variety in Masoor 85(100%). After storage, viability percentage decreased from (76 - 100%) in chickpeas and (72 - 80%) in lentils varieties.

Storage reduces the physico-chemical and nutritional qualities of legumes. There were considerable losses among physico chemical parameters including seed size, volumes, hydration capacity, swelling capacity, after storage in both varieties of chickpeas and lentils. Storage of chickpeas and lentils for 6-18 months resulted in hardening which necessitated increase in cooking time. There were losses of protein (13-28%), fats (29-78%) and ash (4.3-19.4%); and increase of crude fibre (5.0-48%) in both varieties of chickpeas and lentils after storage for 18 months. The minimum losses of various nutrient in the two legumes was found in earthen pot.

Chickpeas and lentils contain anti-nutritional factors as well including tannic acid and phytic acid which were found to decease after storage from 13-64% in both types. Two weaning foods (Cepulac and Pulcelac) based on blend of chickpea/lentils with rice and sucrose were formulated and evaluated chemically. These milk cereal blends. 'Pulcelac' versus‚€™ Cepulac‚€™ provided (per 80.2 gm), crude fibre (0.5vs 1.2gm), ash (0.5vs 0.7gm), Ca(28.2 vs 34.6 mg), p (146.2 vs 150.2 mg), Fe (2.6 vs 2.6 mg), Na (8.8 vs 3.0 mg) , K (300 vs144.6mg), and energy 367 vs 368 kcal/100 gm. They were fed to fifty children of different nutritional status, aged 3-60 months and compared with matched control on other weaning food. The infants and children consuming Cepulac and Pulcelac showed improvement in the nutritional status and blood parameters as compared to the control. These weaning foods were found nutritionally sound, palatable and acceptable by the children.

Lactose free milk based on chickpea was developed and specially compared with ‚€˜isomil‚€™ (soy protein formula) in its nutritive value. Chickpea milk versus isomil provided (per 100 kcal) protein (13.6 vs 13.7gm), carbohydrate (77.4 vs 52.4gm), fat (2.9 vs 28.0gm), ash (1.6 vs 3.4gm), Ca (548 vs 53mg), P(258 vs 38mg), Fe (10.6 vs 9.0mg), Na (7.6 vs 24mg), K (0.8 vs 8.0mg), Mn (3.0 vs 0.15mg), Mg (338 vs 38mg), Zn (3.8 vs 3.8mg), and energy 389 vs 515 kcal/100gm. Chickpea milk was fed to thirty infants of different nutritional status aged (1-12) months with persistent diarrhea. There was improvement in their nutritional status and blood parameters. The children recovered from diarrhea in less than five days. No case of lactose intolerance was found. Chickpea milk proved to be highly effective in the management of persistent diarrhea.

Seven common dishes of chickpeas were prepared and analyzed chemically. They contained (8.9 - 21.1%) protein (N x 6.25), (3.1 - 21.8%) fat, (53.4 - 75.9%) carbohydrates, (1.6 - 11.1 %) crude fibre, (1.2 - 5.9%) ash, (226 -360mg) Ca, (126 -315mg), P (3.8 - 8.2mg) Fe, (1.8 - 5.4mg) Zn, (1.5 - 5.4mg) Mn, (0.6 -1.lmg), Cu, and 370 - 490 kcal per 100gm. All chickpea products provided 7-23%, 7-40% and 52-78% of the total calories from protein, fat and carbohydrates respectively. The nutritional quality of all products except Halwa was adequate to meet the protein requirement of all age groups when compared with reference protein energy ratios

Download Full Thesis
7462.77 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
144.58 KB
2 1 Introduction 2
42.04 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 6
681.51 KB
  2.1 Nutritional Quality Of Legumes 6
  2.2 Effect Of Processing On Nutritive Value Of Legumes 13
  2.3 Effect Of Processing On The Anti-Nutritional Factors In Legumes 26
  2.4 Effect Of Storage On The Nutritional Value Of Legumes 32
  2.5 Effect Of Wearing Foods On The Health Of Children 40
  2.6 Effect Of Infant Feeding Formula On The Control Of Pakistan Diarrhea 48
4 3 Materials And Methods 56
112.06 KB
  3.1 Materials And Methods 56
  3.2 Processing 56
  3.3 Storage 58
  3.4 Development Of Weaning Food 58
  3.5 Development Of Food Dishes 60
  3.6 Physico Chemical Measurements 60
  3.7 Chemical Analysis 62
  3.8 Statistical Analysis 63
  3.9 Assessment Of Nutritional Status 64
5 4 Results And Discussion 66
4855.57 KB
  4.1 Experimental-1 Milling 67
  4.2 Experimental-2germination Viability 70
  4.3 Experimental-3development Of Chickpea Milk 77
  4.4 Experimental-4 Storage 81
  4.5 Experimental-5 Anti-Nutritional Factors 101
  4.6 Experimental-6 Development Of Weaning Food 110
  4.7 Experimental-7 Effect Of Weaning Food On The Nutritional Status Of Children 116
  4.8 Experimental-8 Effect Of Chickpea Milk On The Control Of Persistent Diarrhea 177
  4.9 Experimental-9 Nutritive Value Of Chickpea Based Dishes 208
6 5 General Discussion 213
235.27 KB
  5.1 Summary 225
7 6 Literature Cited 235
1342.12 KB
  6.1 Publications 265
  6.2 Annexures 274