I= THE CHEMISTRY OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF THE PAKISTAN SPECIES OF THE FAMILY UMBELLIGFERAE
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Title of Thesis
THE CHEMISTRY OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF THE PAKISTAN SPECIES OF THE FAMILY UMBELLIGFERAE

Author(s)
Rafi Ahmad
Institute/University/Department Details
University of the Punjab, Lahore
Session
1993
Subject
Chemistry
Number of Pages
226
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
UMBELLIGFERAE, ESSENTIAL OILS, Scaligeria aitchisonii, Foeniculum vulgare, Pleurospermum, Psammogeton stocksii

Abstract
The percentage essential oil yield, physico chemical constants and chemical composition of the essential oils of different Pakistani species of the plant family Umbel1iferae are presented here.

Scaligeria aitchisonii was studied for the first time and found to contain essential oil (0.12%) having specific gravity 0.86, refractive index 474, acid number 0.56.. ester number 20.15 and ester number after acetylation 57.5. The chemical composition of the essential oil revealed the presence of α-thujene (0.30), α - pinene (0.14), sabinene- (0.10), α -phellandrene(2.39), β-pinene (0.66), ”3 carene (0.07), ex-terpinene (0.26), p-cymene (29.56), γ-terpinene (35.72), terpinolene (0.06), linalyl acetate (4.84), ethyl cinnamate (1.23), cinnamaldehyde (2.37), linalool (12.73), and eugenol 0.74%)..

Foeniculum vulgare. wild variety, was studied to yield essential oil (1.35%) with specific gravity 0.95. refractive index 1.5239, acid number 1.25. ester number 3.25 and ester number after acetylation 12.27. The chemical composition of the essential oil revealed, α -pinene (2.96), camphene (0.54), sabinene (0.21), α phel1andrene (0.51). β-pinene (0.24), phel1andrene (0.31), d-limonene (10.45), γ-terpinene (0.26), trans-anethole (67.28), fenchone (8.29), fenchyl alcohol (0.84) . p-anisaldehyde (2.23) and α- terpineol ( 1.24%). Pleurospermum stylosum was studied for the first time and recorded to contain essential oil (0.08%) having specific gravity 0.86, refractive index 1.4614, acid number 0.46, ester number 0.75 and ester number after acetylation 55.07. The essential oil was found to contain α - thujene (0.25), α- pinene (0.78) sabinene (0.87), α-phellandrene (20.10), β-pinene (1.23), β-phellandrene (0.56), a. terpinene (0.18), p-cymene (2.63), d-limonene (0.74), γ- terpinene (34.93), methyl namyl. ketone (10.34), geranial (6.34), neral (3.41), borneol (2.85), nerol (7.73), linalool (1.67) and ange1icin (0.16%).

Psammogeton stocksii was studied for the first time and found to yield essential oil (0.069%), with specific gravity 0.87, refractive index 1.4639, acid number 0.72, ester number 31.25, and ester number after acetylation 60.59. The chemical composition indicated α- pinene (14.50), camphene (0.86), sabinene (0.74), α- phellandrene (2.13), β- pinene (2.20), p-cymene (5,93), d-limonene (5.14), γ-terpinene (31.68), terpinolene (1.41), geranyl acetate (7.50), camphor (4.04), α-terpineol (15.00), geraniol (2.09), and bergaptene (1.0 1).

Download Full Thesis
1688.75 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
68.94 KB
2 1 Introduction 2-8
484.05 KB
  1.1 History 2-8
  1.2 State of Essential oil industry in Pakistan 8-16
  1.3 Chemistry of essential oils 16-21
  1.4 Location in Plants 25-27
  1.5 Different Methods for the extraction of essential oils 30-35
  1.6 Uses 35-41
  1.7 Plant family unmbellifierae 41-44
  1.8 The Aims and objective 45
3 2 General Methodology 46-59
147.9 KB
4 3 Literature survey 60-76
185.78 KB
5 4 Experimental work 77-82
214.16 KB
  4.1 Materials, Instruments & Reagents 77-82
  4.2 Extraction of the Essential oils 82-83
  4.3 Determination of physico -Chemical constants 83-88
  4.4 Resolution of essential oil by column and thin layer Chromatography 89-99
6 5 Results and discussion 115-124
557.87 KB
  5.1 Identification of compounds of the 1ts fractions of essential oils 115-124
  5.2 Identification of oxygenated fraction of the essential oils 125-181
  5.3 References