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Title of Thesis

Syed Shahid Hussain
Institute/University/Department Details
University of the Punjab, Lahore
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Indus Suture Zone, High Himalayan Crystalline Block, Besham Syntaxis, lesser Himalayas, granitoids

A geological map on the scale 1 :250,000 of about 5000 sq Ian of Besham, parts of Kohistan, upper Swat areas and Malakand, Bajaur and Mohmand agencies, covering the region between river Indus in the east and Afghan border to the west has been prepared from mapping carried out on 1:5000 to 1:50,000 scales after variably modifying and incorporating the already existing maps. This map was dovetailed into the existing maps further to the east across river Indus in Kaghan valley to produce the geological map of High Himalaya, Indus Suture Zone, parts of Kohistan and Lesser Himalaya from the Afghan border to the border areas of Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

The entire lithostratigraphic package of the mapped areas has been described, standardized and systematized replacing a plethora of local names.

The lithostratographic units east of Indus river in Kaghan were correlated with the corresponding lithostratigraphic units to the west up to Afghan border. The High Himalaya package, folded into N-S trending basins and domes, was divided into a basement upper amphibolite facies predominantly pelite-psammite rocks with anatectic migmatites in the core of the domes and granitoids (Manglaur group) overlain by a lower meta-turbidite unit with volcanic derived amphibolite towards the base (Salampur formation) and an overlying upper predominantly calc-pelite and marble (Tilgram formation), metamorphosed in upper amphibolite facies.

The High Himalaya is separated from the Lesser Himalaya by a crustal scale thrust, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), south of which occur E-W trending Palaeozoic marbles of Tursak formation and calc-pelites, graphitic pelites and marbles of Girari formation, metamorphosed in greenschist facies.

On the basis of geology. structure and geochemistry, the rocks occurring along the Indus Suture Zone have been divided into a Tethyan MORI fore-arc basin ophiolites in Kohistan. Besham, Alpurai and Dargai and sub-arc mantle rocks overlain by crustal gabbros across the Moho at Jijal-Dubair and Spat. Kohistan. The geology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks associated with the Indus Suture Zone has been described and discussed. These rocks were formed either within a juvenile arc setting or derived from oceanic mantle that had inherited' an anomalously depleted signature from fossil subduction.

In Jijal-Dubair and Spat areas of Kohistan huge outcrops of sub arc mantle. and overlying crustal gabbros with a palaeo-Moho have been described and discussed. These rocks were described in the past as a part of the Indus Suture Zone.

On the basis of geology and geochemistry, the High Himalayan granitoids have been divided into peraluminous collisional granites of Proterozoic, Pan-African and Palaeozoic periods and Himalayan alkaline granites of Carboniferous-Triassic extensional regime.

On the basis of geological contact relations, mineralogical (presence of pyrochlore) and geochemical criteria (REE) calc-silicate marbles and meta-limestones, some of which were described earlier as carbonatites, have been distinguished from carbonatites.

Chromite associated with sutural ultramafites show limited within group variation in their chemical composition and are either refractory (AI rich) or of chemical grade (Cr-Fe rich). Geochemical signatures suggest their formation under a spreading center. The chromite deposits associated with ultramafites, mainly dunites, of the sub-arc mantle are generally AI-poor, show quite heterogeneous compositions even across single grains due to variable reconstitution and combination of melt consuming reactions coupled with ascending fluids from the subducting lithosphere. Mg # in these chromites is lower than those of sutural chromites.

Manganese mineralisation associated with metacherts and greenschists has low values of Co, Ni, Cr, Zn etc and high Mn/Fe ratios and is considered to have been formed by hydrothermal rather than hydrogenous process.

Emerald mineralisation is due to the influx of Be, Al and Si bearing fluids, derived from the Himalyan beryliferous granites into Cr bearing talc-carbonates derived from mantle peridotites, of the Indus Suture Zone.

Exquisite peridot occurs in veins in association with talc, antigorite and magnesite and is confined to shear zones. Late stage, post-tectonic hydrothermal fluids from the host rocks are considered responsible for peridot mineralisation in Spat.

Field and geochemical studies suggest that rodingite occurring in the mafic-ultramafics of the Indus Suture Zone was formed due to metasomatic alteration of gabbros, since they contain fairly high values of Al and Ca.

Field relations (association with peridotites), petrography (relict olivine and pyroxene) and geochemistry (high values of Cr, Ni etc) suggest formation of huge talc deposits from ultramafites.

The gem quality epidote belongs to zoisite and epidote-clinozoisite and is crystallized in altered gabbros and metabasites, which often lack penetrative deformation, suggesting their formation under greenstone (schist) and epidote amphibolite facies hydrogenous metamorphism close to the spreading center.

Green beryl is crystallized generally in calc-alkaline granitoids while blue Cs rich beryl is crystallized in alkaline granitoids. Quartz-mica-beryl veins, crystallized in greisenised zones, represent fluids derived from rest pegmatitic magma due to pressure release.

Gem quality green grossular garnet discovered from the black schists calcareous black shales of High Himalayan Crysta'l1ine basement near Jambil owes its colour to high values of V and Cr in the metamorphosed black schists.

Gem quality; rare and exquisite pink topaz crystallized into Lesser Himalayan reefal meta-limestone due to the influx of F, Al and Si fluids, derived from High Himalayan granitoids in combination with Cr derived from sutural rocks through a system of shears connected to the High Himalaya granitoids and Indus Suture Zone ultramafics lying to the north.

Green dravite-uvite tourmaline crystallized into dolomitic marbles of the High Himalaya. The nearby granites contributed B, Si. and Al while the host dolomitic marbles provided the required Mg

Download Full Thesis
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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
279.72 KB
2 1 Introduction 4
357.48 KB
  1.1 Introduction 4
  1.2 Aims and objectives 6
  1.3 Previous work and Major issues 7
  1.4 Methodology 19
3 2 Regional geological studies and stratigraphic framework 24
1490.94 KB
  2.1 High himalaya or the crystalline core of the Himalayan orogen in Pakistan 26
  2.2 The lesser Himalayas 56
  2.3 The main central thrust 75
  2.4 Kohistan Island ARC 80
4 3 Geology and geochemistry of mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Indus suture zone 89
1043.88 KB
  3.1 Introduction 89
  3.2 Geology 90
  3.3 Metamorphism 117
  3.4 Petrographic studies 118
  3.5 Geochemistry 124
  3.6 Conclusion 141
5 4 Geology and geochemistry of granitoids of high himalaya 154
1061.37 KB
  4.1 Introduction 154
  4.2 Geological setting/geology 156
  4.3 Age relationship 167
  4.4 Petrography 169
  4.5 Geochemistry 177
  4.6 Discussion 204
6 5 Carbonatites of the high himalaya , northern Pakistan 223
141.87 KB
  5.1 Introduction 223
  5.2 Geological studies on carbonatites 223
  5.3 Petrographic features of carbonatites and metalimestones / calcsilicates 226
  5.4 Chemical analyses 228
  5.5 Discussion 229
  5.6 Conclusions 234
7 6 Mineralisation associated with the Indus suture zone and the Indian plate, northern Pakistan 235
1461.59 KB
  6.1 Introduction 235
  6.2 Chromite mineralization 237
  6.3 Manganese mineralization 260
  6.4 Emerald mineralization 273
  6.5 Peridot mineralization 291
  6.6 Rodingite 300
  6.7 Talc deposits 308
  6.8 Epidote 317
  6.9 Beryl mineralization 321
  6.10 green garnet 334
  6.11 Topaz mineralization 342
  6.12 Tourmaline 352
8 7 Conclusions 356
1554.66 KB
  7.1 References 362
  7.2 Appendix 362