I= EVALUATION OF THE TRACE ELEMENTS IN AEROSOLS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PUNJAB AREA IN PAKISTAN
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Title of Thesis
EVALUATION OF THE TRACE ELEMENTS IN AEROSOLS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PUNJAB AREA IN PAKISTAN

Author(s)
Muhammad Abdul Qadir
Institute/University/Department Details
Institute of Chemistry/ University of the Punjab
Session
No. dated
Subject
Chemistry
Number of Pages
249
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
trace elements, aerosols, atmosphere, punjab, aas techniques, naa techniques, gaseous pollutants, ozone, toxicity

Abstract
Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Sheikhupura, wah cantt and Khanispur. The amount of the aerosol particulates in the above mentioned areas was compared to the U.S.-EPA maximum permissible limits.

Scavenging mechanism of the aerosol particulates through precipitation was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura by using HPLC and ICP-Aes techniques. The size distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulates was studied by using Scanning Electron Microscope model JSM-35CF.

Trace elemental composition of the aerosol particulates in the atmosphere of the Punjab was carried out by using NAA. The elements thus studied were Ce, Yb, Se, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Co, Eu, La, Sb, Mo, Ba, Zn, Hg, Br, Na, Gd, Sm, Nd and In, while Pb and Cd were estimated by using AAS technique. In order to develop biological indicators for environmental studies attention was paid to the leaves of sapindus mukorossis, Alstonia scholaris and Diospyros embryopteris plants. The trace elemental analysis in the leaves of the above mentioned species was carried out by using AAS and NAA techniques.

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2198.44 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
77.81 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
81.48 KB
3 2 Review of Literature 13
396.17 KB
  2.1 General Aspects 13
  2.2 Effects of Aerosol Particulates on the Physical Properties of the Atmosphere 20
  2.3 General Urban Effects on Precipitation 22
  2.4 Effects of Aerosol Particulates on Fog Formation 24
  2.5 Effects of Aerosol Particulates on Atmospheric Conductivity 25
  2.6 Effects of Aerosols on Valuable Materials and Structure 26
  2.7 Gaseous Pollutants 32
  2.8 Sulphur Dioxide 32
  2.9 Ozone and Other Oxidants 33
  2.10 Effects of ozone Based on Toxicological Evidence 34
  2.11 Carbon Monoxide 35
  2.12 Uptake of Co from Community Air 36
  2.13 Effects of Co on Cardiovascular and Central Nervous System 38
  2.14 Oxides of Nitrogen 40
  2.15 Hydrogen Sulphides and Mercaptans 42
  2.16 Hydrocarbon Vapours 42
  2.17 Particulate Pollutants 44
  2.18 Lead 44
  2.19 Lead Pollution from motor vehicle Exhausts 45
  2.20 Toxicity of Lead 46
  2.21 Cadmium and Zinc 49
  2.22 Mercury 49
  2.23 The forms of mercury in the environment 54
  2.24 Effects of mercury on human health 54
  2.25 Normal values of mercury in Blood , 55
  2.26 Urine and Hair as a Basis for Estimation of Exposures 59
  2.27 Antimony 60
  2.28 Arsenic 60
  2.29 Beryllium 63
  2.30 Cobalt 64
  2.31 Nicke l65
  2.32 Selenium 66
  2.33 Tin 68
  2.34 Vanadium 68
  2.35 Chromium 69
  2.36 Molybdenum 70
4 3 Materials and Methods 71
157.1 KB
  3.1 Aerosols Sampling Methodology 71
  3.2 Aerosols Sampling Parameters 71
  3.3 Sampling with Filter Papers 71
  3.4 Sampling by Impingers Methods 72
  3.5 Requirements in Aerosols Sampling 74
  3.6 Methodology used for the determination of the Total Suspended Particulate Matter 77
  3.7 Methodology used for the Size and Morphological Structure of the Aerosols 78
  3.8 Application of the scanning electron microscope in Air Pollution work 80
  3.9 Methodology for Sampling and Analysis of the Trace elemental Composition of the Aerosols 80
  3.10 Methodology for the evaluation of As, Ba , Cd , Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn , Pb , Tl , V and Zn in the Aerosol particulates by Using atomic Absorption Analysis 82
  3.11 Air Sampling 82
  3.12 Sample Preparation 82
  3.13 Analysis 83
  3.14 Methodology for the Neutron Activation Analysis 84
  3.15 Air sampling 84
  3.16 Activation and Analysis 84
  3.17 Methodology for the Trace Elemental Analysis by Inductively coupled plasma atomic e84mission spectroscopy 94
  3.18 Methodology for the Sampling and analysis of the precipitation Events 96
  3.19 Sampling of the Precipitation 97
  3.20 Siting 97
  3.21 Samplers 97
  3.22 Container Material 99
  3.23 Sample Preservatives 99
  3.24 Analysis of the Precipitation 99
5 4 Experimental 101
548.18 KB
  4.1 Aerosolā€™s Sampling Parameters 101
  4.2 Aerosolā€™s Sampling at Lahore 104
  4.3 Aerosolā€™s Sampling at Faisalabad 106
  4.4 Aerosolā€™s Sampling at Rawalpindi 108
  4.5 Aerosolā€™s Sampling at Islamabad 112
  4.6 Aerosolā€™s Sampling at Khanispur 114
  4.7 Aerosolā€™s Sampling at Some Industrial Areas of the Punjab 115
  4.8 Aerosolā€™s Sampling at Sheikhupura Industrial Area 116
  4.9 Aerosolā€™s Sampling at wah cantt Industrial Area1 18
  4.10 Sampling of the Aerosol Particulates from mild steel Electric Welding Electrodes 121
  4.11 Determination the Total suspended particulate matter in the Atmosphere of the Punjab 122
  4.12 Determination of the Size Distribution and Morphological Structure of the Aerosol Particulates in the Atmosphere of the Punjab 124
  4.13 Trace Elemental Analysis of the Aerosol particulates and Biological material by Using Neutron Activation Analysis 125
  4.14 Sampling, Sample Preparation and analysis of the biological material and aerosol particulates for trace elemental analysis by using AAS and ICP-AES 126
  4.15 Sampling and analysis of the precipitation events in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura Industrial Area 147
  4.16 Conductivity and pH measurements 148
  4.17 Analysis 148
  4.18 Preparation of Eluents 148
  4.19 Preparation of standards 149
  4.20 Instrumentation 149
  4.21 Chromatographic conditions for HPLC 150
6 5 Results and Discussion 156
665.69 KB
  5.1 Total Suspended particulate matter in the Atmosphere of the Punjab , Pakistan1 56
  5.2 Size distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulate 162
  5.3 Size distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulate at Lahore . 163
  5.4 Size distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulate at Islamabad 166
  5.5 Size distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulate at Rawalpindi 169
  5.6 Size distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulate from Faisalabad 172
  5.7 Size distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol from wah cantt 172
  5.8 Size distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulate at Khanispur 178
  5.9 Trace elemental composition of the aerosol particulates in the Atmosphere of Punjab, Pakistan 182
  5.10 Cerium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 182
  5.11 Ytterbium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 193
  5.12 Selenium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 193
  5.13 Chromium in the Atmosphere of Punjab areas 195
  5.14 Hafnium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 197
  5.15 Caesium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 197
  5.16 Scandium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 199
  5.17 Rubidium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 199
  5.18 Iron in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 201
  5.19 Cobalt in the atmosphere of Punjab Areas 201
  5.20 Europium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 203
  5.21 Lanthanum in the Atmosphere of Punjab Areas 203
  5.22 Antimony in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 204
  5.23 Molybdenum in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 206
  5.24 Barium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 206
  5.25 Zinc in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 208
  5.26 Mercury in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 210
  5.27 Bromine in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 211
  5.28 Sodium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 211
  5.29 Gadolinium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 213
  5.30 Samarium in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 213
  5.31 Neodymium and Tin in the atmosphere of Punjab areas 214
  5.32 Lead and Cadmium in the Atmosphere of Punjab Areas 214
  5.33 Longitudinal distribution of the Trace Elements in the atmosphere of Sheikhupura Industrial a1rea 217
  5.34 Analysis of precipitation in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura 225
  5.35 Health evaluation to an aerosol formed in the fumes from mild steel welding electrodes 232
  5.36 Effects of the Aerosol particulates on the Biological matter 236
  5.37 Accumulation of Pb and Cd in the Leaves of sapindus mukorossis , Alstonia scholaris and Diospyros Embryopteris 236
  5.38 Study of the accumulation of Br, Rb , Sc Cs and Na in the leaves of sapindus mukorossis , Alstonia scholaris and Diospyros Embryopteris 239
  5.39 Study of the Accumulation of Hg, Co, Cr Zn and Fe in the leaves of sapindus Mukorossis , Alstonia scholaris and Diospyros Embryopteris 245
7 6 Summary 254
227.6 KB
  6.1 References 256
  6.2 Publications 282