I= ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC AND OTHER HEALTH SIGNIFICANT WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN GROUND WATER OF NORTHERN PUNJAB
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Title of Thesis
ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC AND OTHER HEALTH SIGNIFICANT WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN GROUND WATER OF NORTHERN PUNJAB

Author(s)
Muhammad Aslam Tahir
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Chemistry/ Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan
Session
2004
Subject
Chemistry
Number of Pages
182
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
arsenic, water quality, ground water, northern punjab, drinking water, arsenic removal techniques, arsenic analysis, arsenic analysis kits

Abstract
Safe drinking water is a basic need of every human being despite of any socio-economic status. In Pakistan, majority of population is using groundwater for drinking and the contamination of this source is one of the major concerns due to unplanned urbanization, industrialization, over exploitation of the natural resources and discharge of hazardous wastes into water bodies without proper treatment. The magnitude of the water quality problems is enormous; however, four number of research projects from different water quality disciplines were undertaken for solving the most confronting drinking water quality apprehensions and issues. The research project, viz. “Water Quality Assessment of Northern Punjab” was conducted first time in which eighty-health significant water quality parameters were determined and documented remedial measures against parameters exceeding the safe limits in 06 project districts of Northern Punjab. The research project titled “Comparison of Analytical Techniques and the newly Developed Two Methods for Arsenic Analysis/Assessment” was conducted and Arsenic (As) was identified as one of the major issue in some areas of both provinces of Pakistan i.e. Southern Punjab and Central Sindh. However, the intensity of arsenic in the groundwater was comparatively less than that of Bangladesh. The determination of arsenic is quite difficult and requires sophisticated instruments and laborious laboratory practices. Therefore, two low cost methods have been developed to analyze arsenic up to even one part per billion (ppb). Hence, United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Development Program (UNDP) have adopted the newly developed low cost arsenic analysis kits for field investigations. To strengthen the above project findings, another research project titled “Innovative Low Cost Arsenic Removal Technologies” were invented to combat the arsenic contamination in drinking water for rural and poor communities of the country. This technology has been successfully tested and adopted in different arsenic affected regions of Pakistan to supply arsenic free water. Finally, a research project entitled “Cost and Impact Analysis of Preventive and Remedial Measures” was executed because the financial allocations to the water supply sector were reported extremely low as compared to the population growth rate i.e. 2.1 % per annum. There is a dire need to create a convincing atmosphere for the policy & decision makers about more investment in the neglected sector of preventive measures particularly in Pakistan. It has been investigated through this project that the reasons for low allocation was wrong perception i.e. huge money was being spent on remedial measures (health sector) rather than preventive ones (water and sanitation sector). In this project, an effort was made to develop a decision support computer model of cost relationship between preventive and remedial measures. This model will be very useful for policy makers, both in public and private sectors and will increase investments in water supply. In addition, water related cases/victims could also be predicted with the help of this model. Therefore, it will be helpful to enhance safe drinking water supply coverage, improve quality of life, human efficiency, better life expectancy "rate and decrease in mortality and morbidity rate, especially in children.

Download Full Thesis
6838.27 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 00 Contents
155.65 KB
2 0 Introduction 1
54.78 KB
3 1 Water Quality Assessment Of Northern Punjab 6
766.65 KB
  1.1 Introduction 6
  1.2 Review Of Literature 7
  1.3 Water Quality Research Studies Surveys Conducted In Northern Punjab 34
  1.4 Materials And Methods 39
  1.5 Results And Discussions 49
  1.6 Conclusions 63
  1.7 Recommendations 67
4 2 Comparison Of Analytical Techniques And The Newly Developed Two Methods For Arsenic Analysis/ Assessment 69
490.51 KB
  2.1 Introduction 69
  2.2 Review Of Analytical Techniques 70
  2.3 Materials And Methods 78
  2.4 Results And Discussions 82
5 3 Innovative Low Cost Arsenic Removal Techniques 92
715.45 KB
  3.1 Introduction 92
  3.2 Review Of Literature 94
  3.3 Materials And Methods 100
  3.4 Results And Discussions 107
  3.5 Conclusions And Recommendations 133
6 4 Cost And Impact Analysis Of Preventive And Remedial Measures 135
321.15 KB
  4.1 Introduction 135
  4.2 Review Of Literature 136
  4.3 Materials And Methods 138
  4.4 Results And Discussions 139
  4.5 Relationship Between Preventive Cost Vs Remedial Cost 147
  4.6 B To C Ratio 148
  4.7 Victim’s Vs Drinking Water, Sanitation And PHE 148
  4.8 Victim’s Rate (Water Related Diseases) Calculator 150
  4.9 Conclusion And Recommendation 151
7 5 References 155
4623.16 KB