Muhammad, Aslam Tahir (2004) ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC AND OTHER HEALTH SIGNIFICANT WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN GROUND WATER OF NORTHERN PUNJAB. PhD thesis, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan.
Safe drinking water is a basic need of every human being despite of any socio-economic status. In Pakistan, majority of population is using groundwater for drinking and the contamination of this source is one of the major concerns due to unplanned urbanization, industrialization, over exploitation of the natural resources and discharge of hazardous wastes into water bodies without proper treatment. The magnitude of the water quality problems is enormous; however, four number of research projects from different water quality disciplines were undertaken for solving the most confronting drinking water quality apprehensions and issues. The research project, viz. ÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂWater Quality Assessment of Northern PunjabÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ was conducted first time in which eighty-health significant water quality parameters were determined and documented remedial measures against parameters exceeding the safe limits in 06 project districts of Northern Punjab. The research project titled ÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂComparison of Analytical Techniques and the newly Developed Two Methods for Arsenic Analysis/AssessmentÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ was conducted and Arsenic (As) was identified as one of the major issue in some areas of both provinces of Pakistan i.e. Southern Punjab and Central Sindh. However, the intensity of arsenic in the groundwater was comparatively less than that of Bangladesh. The determination of arsenic is quite difficult and requires sophisticated instruments and laborious laboratory practices. Therefore, two low cost methods have been developed to analyze arsenic up to even one part per billion (ppb). Hence, United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Development Program (UNDP) have adopted the newly developed low cost arsenic analysis kits for field investigations. To strengthen the above project findings, another research project titled ÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂInnovative Low Cost Arsenic Removal TechnologiesÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ were invented to combat the arsenic contamination in drinking water for rural and poor communities of the country. This technology has been successfully tested and adopted in different arsenic affected regions of Pakistan to supply arsenic free water. Finally, a research project entitled ÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂCost and Impact Analysis of Preventive and Remedial MeasuresÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ was executed because the financial allocations to the water supply sector were reported extremely low as compared to the population growth rate i.e. 2.1 % per annum. There is a dire need to create a convincing atmosphere for the policy & decision makers about more investment in the neglected sector of preventive measures particularly in Pakistan. It has been investigated through this project that the reasons for low allocation was wrong perception i.e. huge money was being spent on remedial measures (health sector) rather than preventive ones (water and sanitation sector). In this project, an effort was made to develop a decision support computer model of cost relationship between preventive and remedial measures. This model will be very useful for policy makers, both in public and private sectors and will increase investments in water supply. In addition, water related cases/victims could also be predicted with the help of this model. Therefore, it will be helpful to enhance safe drinking water supply coverage, improve quality of life, human efficiency, better life expectancy "rate and decrease in mortality and morbidity rate, especially in children.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||arsenic, water quality, ground water, northern punjab, drinking water, arsenic removal techniques, arsenic analysis, arsenic analysis kits|
|Subjects:||Physical Sciences (f) > Chemistry(f2)|
|Deposited By:||Mr. Muhammad Asif|
|Deposited On:||22 Mar 2007|
|Last Modified:||04 Oct 2007 21:06|
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