I= CLINICAL INVESTIGATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIAL PARASITES AND THEIR VECTORS AMONG POPULATION OF KARACHI ON DISTRICT LEVEL CORRELATED WITH ENVIRONMENTAL AND HOME MANAGEMENT
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Title of Thesis
CLINICAL INVESTIGATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIAL PARASITES AND THEIR VECTORS AMONG POPULATION OF KARACHI ON DISTRICT LEVEL CORRELATED WITH ENVIRONMENTAL AND HOME MANAGEMENT

Author(s)
Syed Azra Qamar
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of Karachi/ Department of Zoology
Session
2005
Subject
Zoology
Number of Pages
289
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
malarial parasites, karachi, plasmodium falciparum, p. vivax, p. ovale, p. malariae, anopheles, a. stephensi, a. culicifacies, a. subpictus, a. fluviatilis, a. pulcherimus

Abstract
A total of 3821 males and females from different districts of Karachi and 2347 males and females from different Goths were analysed for malarial parasites (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae) harboring in their blood along with their vectors (5194) Anopheles including A. stephensi, A. culicifacies, A. subpictus, A. fluviatilis and A. pulcherimus. Correlation was carried out at the University of Arizona, USA for the association of parasites with the vector using PCR confirmatory test. This test proved that P. flaciparum and P. vivax were the species responsible for the malarial infection in the area of study Similarly A. stephensi, A. culicifacies and A. subpictus were proved to be actual carriers of malaria in Karachi city and their suburbs. A correlation of the vectors and parasites was also made with environmental changes, seasonal variation and home management system

Incidence of P. falciparum was 60.43%, 33.82% and 49.43%, of P. vivax was 39.56% 66.72% and 59.56% in 2002, 2003 and 2004 respectively from Karachi city, of P. falciparum 56.33% 57.73% and 59.42% of P. vivax was 43.66%, 42.26% and 40.57% from different Goths. Whereas occurrence of A.stephensi was 15.10% in 2002, 31.16% in 2003 and 38.46% in 2004, of A. culicifacies was 58.54% 50.59% and 42.07% in 2002, 2003 and 2004 in turn

A highly sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction was applied on the different species of dried Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Karachi, Pakistan and adjacent Goths, by using simple DNA extraction for the detection of sporozoites, at the University of Arizona, Tueson, Arizona, USA. This experiment revealed that 38% pools of A. stephensi and 33% pools of A. culicifacies were positive for plasmodium. In contrast only 9% were positive in A. culicifacies were positive in A. subpictus whereas A. fluviatilis and A. pulcherimus were found to be negative. Only 12% A. stephensi harboured had mixed infection but only 8% A. culicifacies had mixed infection. The ratio of P. falciparum, and P. vivax infection was 20:5 in A. stephensi and 10:16 in A. culicifacies whereas in A. subpictus, it was 3:6 in the above mentioned orders

The current investigation reveals that P. vivax was the main cause of malaria in Karachi city and P. falciparum was on the peak in Goths. Among the Anopheles A. culicifacies was the most prominent vector reported from Karachi and suburbs. Important factors such as environmental effects, and home management systems are also briefly discussed. Notable health remedies against this persistent disease in Karachi city and Goths are also suggested

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
257.78 KB
2 1 Introduction 5
112.76 KB
3 2 Review Of Literatures 16
234.54 KB
  2.1 Malarial Situation In Pakistan 26
  2.2 Malarial Situation In South East Asian Regions 34
4 3 Materials And Methods 39
2130.48 KB
  3.1 The Malarial Parasites Causative Agents 105
  3.2 The Anopheles Mosquitoes Transmitting Agents 112
  3.3 Plates 118
  3.4 Map Of Karachi 141
  3.5 Results 142
5 4 Discussion 241
125.46 KB
6 5 Conclusion 256
115.74 KB
  5.1 Summary 259
7 6 References 264
101.26 KB
8 7 List Of Author’s Publication And Course Certificates Etc. 276
58.03 KB