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Title of Thesis

Muhammad Obaid-ur-Rahman
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of Karachi/ Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
feto-placental health, karachi women, pregnant women, down’s syndrome, rhesus, hypertension, maternal diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital malformation, fetal alcohol syndrome, drug addiction, twin pregnancy, fetal mortality, morbidity, cord blood cortisol, fetal hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes

In the present work a study of the evaluation of fetoplacental health in Karachi women has been made. One thousand pregnant women were selected from different parts of Karachi. During this study hematological, clinical, biochemical evaluations and ultrasonic scanning carried out. On the basis of our results, it is concluded that Down’s syndrome (0.20%), Rhesus affected pregnancy (2.22%) and pregnancy induce hypertension (37.20%) rates are slightly high. Maternal diabetes (9.20%), intrauterine growth restriction (9.00%) and congenital malformation (0.80%) rates are higher. Fetal alcohol syndrome (0.10%), drug addiction (2.00%) during pregnancy and twin pregnancy is very low but the fetal mortality and morbidity is very high

The high rates are due to poor availability of medical facilities and less education of pregnant females in Pakistan and the rate is very low due to poor care, restriction of government and religious factor. If the medical, educational and other facilities are increases or enhanced in Pakistan, the neonatal and perinatal mortality and morbidity can be much reduced

The overall result of outcome of pregnancy in Karachi women is evaluated it is concluded that rate of Down’s syndrome is nearly same as in the other parts of the world, incidences of Rhesus affected pregnancy is slightly higher because of lack of awareness and immunoprophylaxis, incidences of pregnancy induce hypertension is same as in other parts of the world but maternal and fetal outcome is very bad it is due to lack of antenatal care and poor medical facilities, in twin pregnancy the incidence is 21 twin pregnancies per thousand pregnancies, rate of complications perinatal mortality and morbidity is much higher due to poor pediatric care facilities, incidences of congenital malformation is slightly higher than the western world, the reason being very high rate of consanguous marriages, infectious and injudictious intake of drugs pregnancy which is mainly due to illiteracy, fetal alcohol syndrome, drug addiction during pregnancy are rarest in our study. While these are the leading causes of prenatal mortality and morbidity in the west. The reason of this difference is, Pakistan is a Muslim country and alcohol is prohibited in Islam moreover there is government band on liquor as well

It is therefore, concluded that major factors which effect fetal and maternal health are poor rate of literacy, lack of awareness and poor availability of medical facilities. If the literacy rate and medical facilities are improved then both maternal and feral mortality and morbidity rate can be much reduced

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2158.93 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
148.79 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
271.41 KB
3 2 Plan Of Study 32
50.41 KB
4 3 Literature Survey 39
372.19 KB
  3.1 Biophysical Profile Scores 39
  3.2 Umbilico-Placental Circulation 40
  3.3 Neonatal And Fetal Morbidity 47
  3.4 Trans-Placental Exchange 47
  3.5 Drug Infusion During Pregnancy 48
  3.6 Placentitis And Plasma Cellular Villitis 49
  3.7 Maternal Alcohol Abuse 50
  3.8 Cord Blood Cortisol Assessment 53
  3.9 Amino Acids Transportes 56
  3.10 Retroplacental Hematomas 58
  3.11 Mammalian Hormones 62
  3.12 Mammalian Pathological Biochemistry 66
  3.13 Amniotic Fluid 69
  3.14 Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein 80
  3.15 Pharmacology, Toxicology, Nutrition And Infections 81
  3.16 Hemoglobin 85
  3.17 Blood And Blood Chemistry 86
5 4 Experimental Procedures 89
595.56 KB
  4.1 Chemicals 89
  4.2 Apparatus 91
  4.3 Collection Of Blood Samples 93
  4.4 Procedure 95
  4.5 Collection Of Amniotic Fluid 110
  4.6 Calculations 112
  4.7 Enzyme- Immunological Tests 113
  4.8 Fetal Hemoglobin ( Hb.F ) 124
  4.9 The Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate ( Esr ) 125
  4.10 Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells Or Rbc ) 135
  4.11 The Leukocytes ( Wbc ) 140
  4.12 Differential Blood Count ( Dlc ) 146
  4.13 Blood Platelets 149
  4.14 Blood Group Systems 156
  4.15 Physiological Abnormalities 158
  4.16 Serum Creatinine 170
  4.17 Serum Bilirubin 171
  4.18 Serum Protein 173
  4.19 Amniotic Fluid 174
6 5 Experimental Data 177
347.34 KB
7 6 Results And Discussion 234
800.01 KB
  6.1 Significance Of Blood Grouping During Gestation 234
  6.2 Total Hemoglobin (G/100 Ml) During Normal Gestation 237
  6.3 Variation Of Fetal Hemoglobin In Pregnant Subjects 240
  6.4 Rbc (Erythrocytes) And Esr 242
  6.5 Variations In Pregnancy Venous Blood Platelets 245
  6.6 Variations In Wbc And Differential Counts In Pregnancy Blood 246
  6.7 Variations In Total Protein Content In Pregnancy Venous Blood 250
  6.8 Variations In Creatinine Content In Pregnancy Venous Blood 252
  6.9 Feto-Placental Health In Terms Of Amniotic Fluid’s Diagnostic Constituent Variabilities During Gestation 253
  6.10 Variation Of Blood Characteristics And Other Constituent Parameters Over The Statistical Mean 260
  6.11 Prevalence Rate Of Down’s Syndrome In Karachi Women 261
  6.12 Screening For Intrauterine Growth Restriction 262
  6.13 Incidences Of Congenital Malformation Among Karachi Women 263
  6.14 Incidences Of Maternal Diabetes In Karachi Women 264
  6.15 Fetal Outcome In Diabetic Pregnancy 264
  6.16 Incidences In Patients Having Pregnancy Induced Hypertension In Karachi Women 265
  6.17 Pregnancy Outcome Of The Patients Having Pih 265
  6.18 Incidences Of Alcohol Syndrome In Karachi Women 266
  6.19 Incidences Of Drug Addiction In Pregnancy 268
  6.20 Rate Of Prevalence Of Rhesus Affected Pregnancies In Karachi Women 269
  6.21 Incidences Of Twin Pregnancy In Karachi Women 271
  6.22 Fetal Outcome In Twin Pregnancy (Preterm Labour Between 28-34 Weeks 263
  6.23 Conclusion And Recommendatins 274
  6.24 References 308