I= THE STUDY OF HEAVY METAL IONS (NI++, CU++, ZN++, CD++ & PB++) ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CHARCOAL WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
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Title of Thesis
THE STUDY OF HEAVY METAL IONS (NI++, CU++, ZN++, CD++ & PB++) ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CHARCOAL WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Author(s)
Manzoor Iqbal Khattak
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of Karachi /Department Of Chemistry
Session
1995
Subject
Chemistry
Number of Pages
215
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
heavy metal, ni++, cu++, zn++, cd++ & pb++, activated charcoal, environmental pollution, moisture content, carbon content, metals impurities, densities measurement, surface area, pore volume, porosity, average particle diameter, adsorption, distribution coefficients, water pollution

Abstract
The work presented in this thesis has been divided into three sections. The first section deals with the characterization of activated charcoal. This includes instrumental method for the determination of moisture content, carbon content, metals impurities densities measurement, surface area, pore volume, porosity and average particle diameter of the activated charcoal in the solid state. The solid was further put to X-rays diffraction test in order to determine its amorphous or crystalline nature. The filtrate of doubly distilled water after having been shaken with the activated charcoal is amorphous and acidic in nature and contains phosphate, nitrate and sulphate ions. The carbon content was found to be about 70% and the metals impurities determined are nickel, copper, cobalt, iron magnesium and aluminum. The thermo gravimetric study of activated charcoal showed that the weight loss occurs in two distinct regions: one endothermic (dehydration) and the other exothermic (combustion). The moisture contents were found to 11%. The densities of activated charcoal varied in the sequence true density > tap density > bulk (loose) density. The pore size distribution curve and D-R analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherm indicates the microporous nature of the activated charcoal with surface area values 10000m2/g, porosity 75.74% and pre volume 1.43cm3/g

The second section deals the adsorption of heavy metal ions on activated charcoal from aqueous solutions. The adsorption experiments were carried out by method of simple titration with EDTA. The percentage adsorption and distribution coefficients KD were determined for each metal ions (Ni++, Cu++, Zn++, Cd++ & pb++) as function of all pertinent variables like shaking time, pH, amount of adsorbent, adsorbate, concentration and temperature

From kinetic study, it was observed that adsorption equilibrium for all metals were nearly equal and followed 1st order rate law upto about twenty minutes. The pH effect on the adsorption of the above mentioned metal ions on activated charcoal showed that maximum adsorption in order of pb++>Cu++.Ca++>Zn++.Ni++ was observed at pH values of 10,10,10,5 & 10 respectively

The data of heavy metal ions’ adsorption on activated charcoal was fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Rudushkevich equations but only followed by Freundlich equation. The temperature effect on adsorption of Ni++, Cu++, Zn++, Cd++ & Pb++ showed that the KD values increase with the rise in temperature. The thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔH°), entropy change (ΔS°) and free energy change (ΔG°) were calculated and interpreted

The third section deals adsorption of heavy metals with special references to environmental pollution, generally metallic air pollution and particularly, purification of industrial waste waters in light of heavy metal ions (Ni++, Cu++, Zn++, & Pb++) using activated charcoal as an adsorbent by the process of glass column through technique of atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Pakistan-Elmer Model 2380) for determination of initial and final concentrations of the metals required. The percentage adsorption for each metal was determined at ambient temperature and with agitation at 500 min-1 for 2 h. the feasibility of using activated charcoal

Desorption tests were carried out by (NH4)2SO4, HNO3 & NH4H2PO4, of deactivated charcoal by adsorbing heavy metals at the said temperature, it has been observed that activated charcoal is a good material which can adsorb heavy metals at lower concentration and most of heavy metals adsorbed on activated charcoal can be desorbed with NH4+ in the form of (NH4)2SO4 & NH4H2PO4 along with HNO3 solutions (cations & anions effects). Therefore, this cheaper material (deactivated charcoal) with desorption by (NH4)2SO4 may be used as an ion-exchange medium for the treatment of industrial waste waters contining heavy metal ions

Download Full Thesis
1556.77 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
135.32 KB
2 1 General Introduction 2
345.55 KB
  1.1 Adsorption 2
  1.2 Activated Charcoal As An Adsorbent 21
  1.3 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry As An Analytical Tool 31
  1.4 Titration With Edta 37
  1.5 Pollution 37
  1.6 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer 37
3 2 Characterization Of Activated Charcoal 40
102.65 KB
  2.1 Introduction 40
  2.2 Experimental 40
4 3 Adsorption Of Heavy Metals On Activated Charcoal 53
613 KB
  3.1 Introduction 53
  3.2 Experimental 54
5 4 Heavy Metals Adsorption On Activated Charcoal With Special References To Pollution 148
230.99 KB
  4.1 Introduction 148
  4.2 Environmental Protection Of Water Pollution By Activated Charcoal 153
  4.3 Experimental 156
6 5 Results And Discussion 176
218.41 KB
  5.1 Introduction 176
  5.2 Characterization Of Activated Charcoal 176
  5.3 Adsorption Of Heavy Metal Ions On Activated Charcoal 186
  5.4 Removal Toxic Heavy Metal Ions From Industrial Wastes Through Adsorption 188
  5.5 Desorption Of Heavy Metal Ions From Deactivated Charcoal 189
  5.6 Chemical Toxicology Of Heavy Metal-Polluted Waters 190
7 6 Conclusions 199
43.08 KB
8 7 References 137
136.96 KB