The specific objectives of this study are to understand NGOs and their management practices scenario in SAARC countries vis-a-vis understanding of the basis of the difference in managing public, private and non-governmental organizations.
There are three levels of NGOs - Grass Roots Organizations, Intermediary NGOs and International or Donor NGOs. Amongst these, Grass Roots Organizations (GROs) are the biggest in number but are very small in size as they are localized, have limited funds and outreach. The Donor NGOs are big in size, mostly foreign funded and do not work directly with beneficiaries. The intern1ediary NGOs work on a regional level, and are relatively bigger than GROs or CBOs (Community Based Organizations) and smaller than donor organizations in size and outreach.
The target population or this research is Intermediary NGOs in SAARC countries. The reason of targeting this population is that Intermediary NGOs exist in thousands, are formal in most cases, are managed by professional staff and work directly with the beneficiaries or in partnership with CBOs/GROs or Donor Organizations. Accordingly, the beneficiaries or this research will number in the thousands. When people talk about NGOs, the, generally refer to the Intermediary NGOs, and the combined beneficiaries of Intermediary NGOs are more than the GROs and Donor Organizations.
Since there is a general perception that the NGOs are not being managed properly, the Intermediary NGOs have been pinpointed for study in order to improve their management system. Hence, this perception about NGO (Intermediary) Management in SAARC countries is the driving force of this research.
On the basis of good management indicators developed by the International NGO Training & Research Centre (INTRAC), U.K, the Intermediary NGOs in SAARC countries have been studied. For the above-mentioned purpose, 25 indicators in addition to 13 general questions pertaining to management related opinions of the senior executives of NGOs of SAARC countries have forn1ed 38 research questions. The study focuses on the existing organizational management practices, vis-à-vis scope of further improvement in it.
Since there is a dearth of research on NGO management, the descriptive-exploratory method has been adopted for this Study, hence it involving extensive literature research, data collection in the field through questionnaire and interviews, case studies throughout the SAARC region and data analysis under descriptive and inferential statistics. As a result, the general perception that the NGOs are not being managed well in SAARC countries was found to be true. The findings of the literature search and data analysis, established that the majority of the NGOs in the region do not have a proper management system as tested against the suggested 'Management Assessment Tools (MAT)/ Management indicators by INTRAC, U.K.
On the basis of the result of descriptive and inferential statistics' analysis, a management model, namely Operational NGO Management Model' and principles of NGO management have been designed and recommended. Although these recommendations have been made only as a.1 initial research work in this reference, it took volumes of study on the management system of the three sectors to reach this primary stage.
During the course of this research, many questions were identified for further research and study, and some of them have been mentioned in the last chapter as potential for further study.