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Title of Thesis

Aftab Saeed
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Pharmacognosy/ University of Karachi
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
folk herb drugs, pharmacognostic techniques, pharmacognostic characterization, embodies application, unani medicine, afsantin, gaozaban, izkhar, mulethi, neem, bakain, aqarqarha, ashok-chhaal, bottle brush

This thesis is based on the emerging concepts of pharmacognostic characterization, and embodies application of some pharmacognostic techniques to ascertain origin of folk herbal drugs used in traditional (Unani) medicine. Chapter first introduces herbal drugs utilization which is on continuous rise, the phenomenon of adulteration which affects the quality and efficacy of drugs, and needs for characterization to ascertain origin of folk herbal drugs. Chapter second includes a survey of published literature' on the subject from earlier contributions to contemporary approaches, outcome of various pharmacognostic methods are therefore outlined. In Chapter third. methods applied in pharmacognostic--------------------------determination of their origin. Here, experimental approaches which are employed for the characterization of drugs of natural origin, examples of adulterated, substituted or impurified materials, standarization with reference to traditional (Unani) medicine, and folk herbal drugs selected for pharmacognostic characterization have been discussed. There are mentioned attirubtes of nine herbal drugs viz. Afsantin (whole herb and leaves), Gaozaban (flowers and leaves), Izkhar (leaves), Mulethi (roots), Neem and Bakain (leaves), Aqarqarha (roots and flowers), Ashok-chhaal (bark), and Bottle brush (leaves) which have been studied either for their organoleptic (all the drugs), physico-chemical (six drugs) or characteristic phytochemical constituents (one). Their significance from traditional (Unani) medicine viewpoint has also been mentioned.

Chapter fifth (experimental) highlights the procedures and protocols which have been gainfully applied for studying organoleptic, physicochemical and phytochemical characters. Consequently the relevant organoleptic. and physicochemical characters studied have been tabulated. For the purpose of phytochemical characterization, investigation has been carried out to determine the presence of hydrolyzable polyphenolic compounds of tannins/flavonoids class in Bottle brush (Callistemon speciosus) leaves. This part of work aims at delineating characteristic bioactive compounds of this class against the known compounds reported in------------------------------------------ physico-chemical characterstics of the herbal drugs studied, on the basis of which these drugs have been identified under the plant species Artemisia absinthium(Afsantin), Onosma bracteatum (Gaozaban), Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Izkhar), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Mulethi), Azadirachta indica (Neem), and Melia azedarach (Bakain), Chrysanthemum cierariaefolium (Aqarqarha), and Callistemon speciosus (Bottle brush) leaves. Organoleptic characteristics of these drugs have been tabulated and compared subsequently. The phyico-chemical parameters of six drugs including micro-chemical colour reaction tests, reaction of powders with chemicals and against the light source, number and Rf value of various spots in TLC, physico-chemical constants and successive extractive values for common organic solvents and for distilled water have been determined, tabulated and discussed. For phytochemical. characterization, an attempt has been made to investigate and identify hydrolyzable polyphenolic constituents of C. speciosus. Therefore, applying protocol for the investigation of hydrolyzable polyophenolic monomeric compounds of tannin/ flavonoids class [extraction →purification → column chromatography →HPLC → (RP/NP) →NMR →Mass spectrophotometry] some fractions have been identified and being reported include casuarinin, casuariin, (+) - catechin, kaempferol glucuronide, tergallic acid dilctone, quercetin, quercetin rhamnoside, 2, 3-HHDP glucose, kaempferol methyl (?) ether, and ellagic acid. Their possible structures have been suggested, and reported first time from C. speciosus. In addition to characterize C. speciosus, it was also intended to portray distinction with the reported constituents of closely related species C. lenceolatus.

In the light of research work carried out, it can be asserted that the application of pharmacognotic techniques to identify organoleptic, physico-chemical and phytochemical characteristics are quite useful in characterizing, and ascertaining the origin of folk herbal drugs. When combined with advanced analytical techniques like HPLC, NMR and Mass Spectrophotometry, then, these may bring more appropriate results aimed at characterization and may assist standardization of herbal folk drugs available in the market.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
151.83 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
174.05 KB
  1.1 Folk Herbal Drugs In Perspective 5
  1.2 Adulteration-The Non-Professional Behaviour 12
  1.3 Needs For Standardization And Confirmation Of Origin 17
3 2 Literature Survey 19
163.65 KB
  2.1 Survey Of Pharmacognostical Works On Indigenous Herbal Of Medicinal Value 20
  2.2 Morphological And Phytochemical Approaches 26
4 3 Methods Applied In Pharmacognostic Characterization Of Herbal Drugs 34
567.79 KB
  3.1 Biological Evaluation Of Herbal Drugs 39
  3.2 Methods Applied For Pharmacogostic Characterization Assays 58
  3.3 Computer Aided Identification Of Powdered Herbal Drugs 69
5 4 Selection Of Folk Herbal Drugs Fro Determination Of Their Origin 77
353.38 KB
  4.1 Experimental Approaches Fro Studying Drugs Of Natural Origin 79
  4.2 Examples Of Genuine Materials Adulterated Substituted Or Impurified 82
  4.3 Folk Herbal Drugs Standardization (Particularly With References To Unani System Of Medicine) 84
  4.4 Folk Herbal Drugs Selected For Pharmacognostic Characterization 85
6 5 Experimental 111
901.64 KB
  5.1 Organoleptic Study And Microscopic Observations Of Dried Herbal As Available In The Market Material And Methods 112
  5.2 Observations Following Colour Reactions 153
  5.3 Reaction Of Chemicals With Powdered Drugs 154
  5.4 Thin Layer Chromatography ( Tlc ) 154
  5.5 Physico-Chemical Constants And Successive Extractive Values 155
  5.6 Ash Values-Determination Of Total Ash 156
  5.7 Acid Insoluble Ash 156
  5.8 Water Soluble Ash 157
  5.9 Loss On Drying 157
  5.10 Successive Extraction Values 157
7 6 Results And Discussion 171
621.23 KB
8 7 References 234
288.38 KB