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Title of Thesis

Khalil Ahmad Malick
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Karachi/ Department of Geology
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
bauxite deposit, azad kashmir, batomong, khailla, nikial, salhun, sawar gunimalni, kamroti, bauxite, muzaffarabad

Bauxite and the associated rocks from seven different localities namely batomong and Khailla of Muzaffarabad and Khunder, Nikial, Salhun, Sawar Gunimalni and Kamroti of Kotli Tehsil in Azad Kashmir have been investigated geochemically and mineralogically

Rocks in contact with the bauxite are the fire clay at the base and eocone shale at the top. The fire clay overlies the Muzaffarabad Formation of PermoCarboniferius age

The bauxite (2-3 ft thick) which grades upward from poorly pisolitic to highly pisolitic from and the underlying fire clay correspond closely with each other in chemical and mineralogical composition in every locality. No relationship could be found between the solution brecoia which forms the top of Muzaffarabad Formation and the bottom of the fire clay

The variations in the percentages of S102 and Al2O3 in the bauxites of the various localities are due to fluctuation in the bauxitization environment causing differential leaching and precipitation of these important components

Silica and alumina concentrations have been found to work satisfactorily as indicators in studying the geochemical relationship between the bauxite and the associated rocks of the areas under study. Triangular variation diagrams of L.O.I – SiO2 – Al2O3, Sio2 – Al2O3 – Fe2O3 and CaO – Mgo – Na2O also separate the fire clay and the bauxite as one distinct group from the associated rocks

Statistical calculations further confirm the conclusions deduced from the diagrams of the chemical analysis data of the bauxite and the associated rocks

The study of non-clay minerals such as foldspars, quartz, anatase and muscovite and the clay minerals also supplements the above results

The study reveals similar provenance and cycle of deposition for the fire clay and the bauxite with some break and changes when the pisolites of the bauxite were being formed

The grade of the bauxite ranges between B to D according to Thoenen and Burchard (1941) classification modified by Donson and Waage (1966)

The dolomite of Muzaffarabad formation underneath the cher braccia, has been found to be good quality

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents 0
237.34 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
543.35 KB
  1.1 General Statment 2
  1.2 Previous Work 2
  1.3 Geological Description 4
  1.4 Method Of Study 23
  1.5 Selection Of Sample Sites And Method Of Sampling 24
3 2 Geochemical Study Of The Bauxite And The Associated Rocks 27
1281.41 KB
  2.1 Objectives Of Invostigation 27
  2.2 Selection Of Elements 30
  2.3 Analytical Procedure 31
  2.4 Determination Of Degree Of Correspondence Between The Buxite And The Associated Rocks 32
  2.5 Determination Of The Degree Of Correspondence Between The Bauxite And The Associated Rocks And The Behavior Of Elements With Sio2 To Al2o3 Ratio 64
  2.6 Graphs Showing Concentration Of Sio2, Al2o3, Fe2o3, Cao , Mgo , Fa2o, Na2o, K2o, Tio2 And P2o5 In The Bauxites Only From Various Localities Of Azad Kashmir 108
  2.7 Triangular Diagrams 120
  2.8 Statistical Analysis Of The Chemical Composition Of The Bauxites And The Associated Rocks 131
4 3 Clay Minerals In The Bauxites And The Associated Rocks Of Muzaffarabad And Kotli Areas 139
372.55 KB
5 4 Microscopic Study Of Non-Clay Minerals In The Bauxites And The Associated Rocks 167
390.36 KB
6 5 Discussion 204
192.96 KB
7 6 Economic Evaluation Of Azad Kashmir Bauxite 197
143.2 KB
8 7 Summary 204
56.89 KB
9 8 Conclusions 207
56.69 KB
10 9 Appendex 210
1102.2 KB
  9.1 Chemical Analysis Method 210
  9.2 Chemical Analysis Data 237
  9.3 Precentage Data Of Sio2-Al2o3-Fe2o3, Mgo-Cao-Na2o And Sio2-Al2o3-L.O.I. For The Plots Variation Diagrams 245
  9.4 Table Of Ratio Data Of I.Sio2 To Al2o3 Ratio. Ii. Sio2 To Fe2o3 Ratio. Iii. Fe2o3 To Al2o3 Ratio. Iv. Cao To Mgo Ratio 251
  9.5 Method Of Differential Therual Analysis 255
  9.6 Table Of Differential Thermal Analysis Data Of The Bauxite And The Associated Rocks 260
11 10 Bibliograph 298
435.65 KB