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Title of Thesis

Institute/University/Department Details
University of Karachi/ Department of Pharmacognosy
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
ammania baccifera, bergenia ciliate, herbal drugs, ambacinol, ambacinin, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, hypoglycemic activity, intracutaneous toxicity, acute systemic toxicity, β-sitosterol, rutin, quercitrin

Two natural herbal drugs of medicinal importance, Ammania baccifera and Bergenia ciliate were subjected to chemical and bioactivity analysis respectively. Records of these investigations are described in this thesis in two parts

Ammania baccifera utrilized in folk medicine to relieve painful blisters and skin diseases, as well as useful in urinary calculi. From the whole plant two new terpenic compounds named as ambacinol and ambacinin have been isolated and were determined by chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The UV and IR-spectra of ambacinol displayed the features of chromophore and presence different chemical groups in the molecule. Whereas HR-MS, FAB-MS and EI_MS and their fragmentation pattern showed the molecular formula as C13H20O3 (Mol. Wt 224). The PMR and CMR of ambaclhol exhibited many chemical salient features and these were also confirmed by 1H-13C-NMR chemical shift assignment correlations. The circular dichroism spectra (CD) revealed that ambacinol has the R configuration at C-1, and S configuration at C-9, which is opposite to that of blumenols. In the light of above mentioned physico-chemical evidences, the stereochemical structure of ambacinol has been elucidated

The structure of another compound ambacinin has been proposed on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic studies including UV, IR, 1H-NMR 1H-NMR and EI-MS

From the series of investigations on chemical constituents of Ammania baccifera, four known compounds (i) β-sitosterol-3-O- β-glucopyranoside, (ii) Quercctin-3-rutinoside (Rutin), (iii) Kaempferol-3-O- β-glucopyranoside and (iv) Quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (Quercitrin) have been isolated and identified. The identity of all these four steroidal and flavonoid glycosides were established on the basis of chemical shifts and spectral data. All these four compounds were categorized on no difference ir, mixture mclting point with an authentic sample and direct comparison on the tlc plate with the reference sample. The IR, NMR (1H-and 13C-) and Mass spectra of these compounds were also identical with those of β-sitosterol glucoside, rutin, kaempferol glucoside and quercitrin reported in the literature. However all these compounds are reported for the first time as occurring in Ammania baccifera

The second part of the thesis describes a study carried out to determine the bioactivity of medicinal herb Bergenia ciliate, which in folkloric medicine is used to cure hyperglycemic states. A battery of assays were performed on different extracts of Bergenia ciliate which included antibacterial, antifungal and hypoglycemic activities, toxicity evaluations such as acute systemic and intracutaneous toxicity as well as test for hemolytic activity

Antibacterial and antifungal effects of ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous extracts of the roots and leaves extract of Bergenia ciliate exhibited various degrees of inhibition (activity). It was observed that root and leaves extracts were promising against gram positive and gram negative bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas the antifungal activity of roots and leaves extracts were effective against Microsporum canis, Pleuroetus oustreatus and Candida albicans. This study showed that Bergenia ciliate could inhibit both selectively the bacteria and fungi

Bergenia ciliate has been employed in folklore medicine to treat symptoms of diabetic mellitus. All the extracts except chloroform of root and leaves of Bergenia ciliate were found to posses hypoglycemic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ) treated rats., Therefore, the plant can be classified as hypoglycemic, and evince hypoglycemic activity in experimental diabetes ranging from 40-70% of its onset to reduce blood glucose level

The toxicological investigations of Bergenia ciliate with particular reference to acute systemic toxicity and intracutaneous toxicity in experimental animals displayed that it elicits severe toxicity. The symptoms of toxicity in intracutaneous test showed orythema and edema whereas assessment of acute systemic toxicity frequently revealed breathing problem and initiations of diarrhea with bloody stools in experimental model and caused gastro-intestinal syndromes. It was concluded that Bergenia ciliate can produce toxicity suggesting a role in certain diseases. However, it is premature to speculate about the mechanism of action until toxicity is unequivocally established. The hemolysis test on the extract of Bergenia ciliate was almost devoid of any such activity

Download Full Thesis
1636.07 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents 0
123.35 KB
2 1 Part-1: Validation Methods And Standards For Herbal Medicine/General Introduction 1
210.55 KB
  1.1 Process Validation 3
  1.2 Validation Standards For Herbal Medicines 6
  1.3 Dissolution Test Requirements 17
  1.4 Prospects In Validation 22
3 2 Part-2: Chemcial Studies On Ammania Baccifera / General Introduction 24
122.89 KB
  2.1 Botanical Informations 24
  2.2 Ethnomedical Informations 27
  2.3 Information On Biological Activities 30
  2.4 Chemical Literature Search 32
4 3 Experimental 9
119.46 KB
  3.1 General Experimental 37
  3.2 Collection And Identification 38
  3.3 Extraction And Isolation 38
  3.4 Isolation And Spectral Data Of Sesquiterpenes 41
  3.5 Isolation And Characterization Of Sterol 44
  3.6 Isolation And Characterization Of Flavonoids 46
5 4 Results And Discussion 50
454 KB
  4.1 General 50
  4.2 Ambacinol 52
  4.3 Ambiacinin 62
  4.4 Β-Sitosterol 71
  4.5 Rutin 74
  4.6 Kaempferol-3-O-Β-Glucopyranoside 76
  4.7 Quercitrin 78
6 5 References 82
79.94 KB
7 6 Part-3: Bioactivity Evaluation Of Bergenia Ciliate/General Screening 90
183.24 KB
  6.1 Botanical Informations 90
  6.2 Ethnomedical Informations 93
  6.3 Chemical Literature Search 96
  6.4 Information On Biological Activities 102
8 7 Experimental 108
248.66 KB
  7.1 Collection & Identification 108
  7.2 Extraction & Isolation 108
  7.3 Antibacterial Activity 111
  7.4 Antifungal Activity 115
  7.5 Hypoglycemic Activity 119
  7.6 Acute Systemic Toxicity 124
  7.7 Intracutaneous Toxicity 128
  7.8 Hemolysis Test 133
9 8 Results And Discussion 137
259.81 KB
  8.1 General 137
  8.2 Antibacterial Activity Of Root Extracts 138
  8.3 Antifungal Activity Of Root Extracts 139
  8.4 Antibacterial Activity Of Leaves Extracts 141
  8.5 Antifungal Activity Of Leaves Extracts 142
  8.6 Hypoglycemic Activity 145
  8.7 Acute Toxicity Test 150
  8.8 Intracutaneous Test 152
  8.9 Hemolysis Test 156
10 9 References 160
60.14 KB