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CHEMICAL STUDIES ON AMMANIA BACCIFERA AND BIOACTIVITY EVALUATION OF BERGENIA CILIATE

Islam, Mazhar-Ur- (2000) CHEMICAL STUDIES ON AMMANIA BACCIFERA AND BIOACTIVITY EVALUATION OF BERGENIA CILIATE. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.

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Abstract

Two natural herbal drugs of medicinal importance, Ammania baccifera and Bergenia ciliate were subjected to chemical and bioactivity analysis respectively. Records of these investigations are described in this thesis in two parts Ammania baccifera utrilized in folk medicine to relieve painful blisters and skin diseases, as well as useful in urinary calculi. From the whole plant two new terpenic compounds named as ambacinol and ambacinin have been isolated and were determined by chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The UV and IR-spectra of ambacinol displayed the features of chromophore and presence different chemical groups in the molecule. Whereas HR-MS, FAB-MS and EI_MS and their fragmentation pattern showed the molecular formula as C13H20O3 (Mol. Wt 224). The PMR and CMR of ambaclhol exhibited many chemical salient features and these were also confirmed by 1H-13C-NMR chemical shift assignment correlations. The circular dichroism spectra (CD) revealed that ambacinol has the R configuration at C-1, and S configuration at C-9, which is opposite to that of blumenols. In the light of above mentioned physico-chemical evidences, the stereochemical structure of ambacinol has been elucidated The structure of another compound ambacinin has been proposed on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic studies including UV, IR, 1H-NMR 1H-NMR and EI-MS From the series of investigations on chemical constituents of Ammania baccifera, four known compounds (i) β-sitosterol-3-O- β-glucopyranoside, (ii) Quercctin-3-rutinoside (Rutin), (iii) Kaempferol-3-O- β-glucopyranoside and (iv) Quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (Quercitrin) have been isolated and identified. The identity of all these four steroidal and flavonoid glycosides were established on the basis of chemical shifts and spectral data. All these four compounds were categorized on no difference ir, mixture mclting point with an authentic sample and direct comparison on the tlc plate with the reference sample. The IR, NMR (1H-and 13C-) and Mass spectra of these compounds were also identical with those of β-sitosterol glucoside, rutin, kaempferol glucoside and quercitrin reported in the literature. However all these compounds are reported for the first time as occurring in Ammania baccifera The second part of the thesis describes a study carried out to determine the bioactivity of medicinal herb Bergenia ciliate, which in folkloric medicine is used to cure hyperglycemic states. A battery of assays were performed on different extracts of Bergenia ciliate which included antibacterial, antifungal and hypoglycemic activities, toxicity evaluations such as acute systemic and intracutaneous toxicity as well as test for hemolytic activity Antibacterial and antifungal effects of ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous extracts of the roots and leaves extract of Bergenia ciliate exhibited various degrees of inhibition (activity). It was observed that root and leaves extracts were promising against gram positive and gram negative bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas the antifungal activity of roots and leaves extracts were effective against Microsporum canis, Pleuroetus oustreatus and Candida albicans. This study showed that Bergenia ciliate could inhibit both selectively the bacteria and fungi Bergenia ciliate has been employed in folklore medicine to treat symptoms of diabetic mellitus. All the extracts except chloroform of root and leaves of Bergenia ciliate were found to posses hypoglycemic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ) treated rats., Therefore, the plant can be classified as hypoglycemic, and evince hypoglycemic activity in experimental diabetes ranging from 40-70% of its onset to reduce blood glucose level The toxicological investigations of Bergenia ciliate with particular reference to acute systemic toxicity and intracutaneous toxicity in experimental animals displayed that it elicits severe toxicity. The symptoms of toxicity in intracutaneous test showed orythema and edema whereas assessment of acute systemic toxicity frequently revealed breathing problem and initiations of diarrhea with bloody stools in experimental model and caused gastro-intestinal syndromes. It was concluded that Bergenia ciliate can produce toxicity suggesting a role in certain diseases. However, it is premature to speculate about the mechanism of action until toxicity is unequivocally established. The hemolysis test on the extract of Bergenia ciliate was almost devoid of any such activity

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:ammania baccifera, bergenia ciliate, herbal drugs, ambacinol, ambacinin, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, hypoglycemic activity, intracutaneous toxicity, acute systemic toxicity, β-sitosterol, rutin, quercitrin
Subjects:Biological & Medical Sciences (c) > Medical Sciences (c2) > Pharmacy(c2.5)
ID Code:1298
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:27 Jan 2007
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:05

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