Pakistan Research Repository Home

Title of Thesis

Chaudhry Muhammad Shafique
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Karachi/ Department of Zoology
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
bio-ecology, ayubia national park, flora, fauna, flying squireles, herps, avian fauna, aammalian fauna, avifauna, mammalian fauna, galliat forest

According to the WEMC/UNED, there are more than 44,000 protected areas, worldwide, covering about 10.1 percent of the world’s terrestrial surface. Almost 42 percent (18,400 sites) are in the developing countries, including some of the most biologically rich habitats on the Earth. These protected areas are the cornerstone of biodiversity and species conservation (Kramer et al., 1997; Bruner et al., 2001)

Ayubia National Park is one of the fourteen declared National Parks in the country that falls in the IUCN-Category V. The park is internationally known as a hot spot in the moist-temperate West-Himalayan mountainous range in the sense that many endangered or threatened species are inhabited in the Park. The serves as an international route used by the local and international migrant species. The Park is purely built to protect this beautiful landscape predominantly enriched with coniferous forest (Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Picea smithiana, Pinus wallichiana and Texus wallichiana) mixed with broad-leaved evergreen (Quercus floribunda, Q. glauca, Q. incana,) and deciduous broad-leaved trees (Acer caesium, Aesculus indica, cornus macrophylla, Juglans regia, Populus cilliata, Prunus cornuta, Salix tetrasperma, Ulmus wallichiana) in the moist-temperate environs of western Himalayan range. In a study carried out by the scribe, a total of 420 species of plants were recorded in the area including 9 species of fungi, 5 species of lichens, 5 species of gymnosperms, and 65 species of monocotyledons belonging to 8 families while 309 speices of dicotyledons belonging to 71 families. Among plants Ulmus wallichiana, Taxus wallichiana, Podophylum hexandrum, Jasminum humile are considered as endangered species

Prior to this work, little is known about the fauna of the area. A total of 22 species of Mammals, 154 species of birds and 08 species of Herps (Reptilians & Amphibians) were recorded. Species of herps belonging to 5 families of 3 orders were recorded of which a single species of poisonous snake, Himalayan pit viper family of Viperidae, 4 species of lizards of which 3 species belong to the family agamidae and Single species of Striped grass skink of the family Scincidae were more commonly observed. Amphibians were very rare in the park

Birds of 42 families belonging to 13 orders were recorded of which 12.9% were permanent resident, 12.3% were resident altitudinal migrant, 18.9% were passage migrant, 29.2% were summer migrant, 4.5% were winter migrant, 10.4% were occasional, 10.4% were vagrant and 2.6% passed through their aerial route. Prior to this study, status of the avifauna exclusively of Ayubia National Park was lacking. Roberts (1991 & 1992), Ali and Ripley (1968, 1974, 1982, 9183 & 1987), Raja et al. (1997), Barker et al. (1996 & 1999) conducted ornithological survey in the adjoining areas but none of them surveyed exclusively in the Park area. Five main aspects including seasonal variation, relative abundance, breeding evidence, altitude and status were studied

The present study reveals that the numbers of mammalian species were much higher than mentioned by the earlier workers including Roberts (1977 & 1997), Schaller (1973 & 1976), Siddiqui (1961 & 1969), Schaller and Mirza (1971). A total of 22 species of mammals have been recorded of which 2 species of Insectivores belong to family Soricidae of order Insectivora, 6 species of bats of family Cercopithecidae, 6 species of Carnivores belonging to families Canidiae, Mustellidae, Viverridae and Felidae and 7 species of Rodents belong to families Pteromyidae, Hystridae and Muridae

Complete description along with the current status, feeding habits, water, limiting factors, calling, nesting, habitats, habits, gliding, breeding etc. along with the special emphasis of cavity tree selection and competitors of Petaurista petaurista albiventer and Hylopetes (Eoglaucomys) fimbriatus were also included in the present study for the first time

The present study reveals that Ayubia National Park has now become a permanent breeding territory of the Leopard. Leopard is notorious for attacking the domestic livestock. Its population shows a little increase as its main prey, Himalayan Rhesus is abundantly present in the Park. Inspite of this, the population of the Himalayan Rhesus is gradually increasing partly because the area is now protected

Local people, being poor and illiterate, depend heavily upon natural resources as they do not have any awareness about conservation of wildlife. It is recommended that a system may be established immediately to provide alternate source of income to the locals, without which none of the conservation programmes may be fruitful

Download Full Thesis
9262.46 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents 0
339.2 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
183.67 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 22
281.52 KB
  2.1 National Parks 24
  2.2 Flora 30
  2.3 Fauna 41
  2.4 Flying Squireles 54
4 3 Materials And Methods/Environmental Variables 57
138.38 KB
  3.1 Precipitation 57
  3.2 Flora 60
  3.3 Herps (Reptilians And Amphibians ) 61
  3.4 Avian Fauna 62
  3.5 Aammalian Fauna 66
5 4 Results 72
7219.54 KB
  4.1 Study Area 72
  4.2 Environment 80
  4.3 Flora Of The Park 101
  4.4 Herps (Reptilian And Amphibian) Of The Park 149
  4.5 Avifauna Of The Park 158
  4.6 Mammalian Fauna Of The Park 240
  4.7 Flying Squirrels 258
  4.8 Cavity Tree Selection And Competitors 325
6 5 Discussion 338
140.04 KB
7 6 Conservation And Management 354
1059.47 KB
  6.1 Natural Resources 354
  6.2 History Of Galliat Forest 357
  6.3 Conservation Problems 359
  6.4 Problems Of Villagers 367
  6.5 Biological Resources Of The Park 368
8 7 Literature Cited 395
419.02 KB