ANALYSIS OF THE OBSTACLES TO GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN THE PUNJAB PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF DISTRICT MUZAFFARGARH

MUHAMMAD ZAKARIA YOUSUF, HASSAN (2008) ANALYSIS OF THE OBSTACLES TO GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN THE PUNJAB PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF DISTRICT MUZAFFARGARH. Doctoral thesis, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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Abstract

About half of the population of Pakistan consists of females who actively participate in social and economic activities. They are not only involved in industrial activities but also in agriculture. Their activities vary a lot. Although, they are functional members of rural societies but still they are not enjoying due socio-economic status in rural communities. Their access to non-formal and extension education is limited. In the same context, the present study was designed to analyze the obstacles to gender mainstreaming in agricultural extension in the Punjab, Pakistan: A case study of district Muzaffargarh. A multi stage random sampling technique was employed. Five hundred farm families were selected from 20 villages, 5 randomly selected from each tehsil that made a total of 1000 respondents of the study. The officiating staff of Agriculture Department (Extension Wing) and all male and female workers of one randomly selected NGO in the district served as a sample. The data were collected through pre-tested interview schedule and various statistical techniques were used to analyze the data by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Main findings of present case study indicate that mean age of husband respondents was 41.6 and that of wife respondents was 35.5 years. Majority (64.3 and 77.4%) of husband and wife respondents were illiterate, respectively. Husband respondents had various social statuses such as Nazim, Naib nazim, Councillor, Labrour councilor, Numberdar, and Member of political party but only 0.1 % of wife respondents had status of Lady councilor. Women received relatively less benefit from different sources of information that not only hindered them to avail better sources of employment but also made their position pity at home and community level. These women were also neglected by Agricultural Extension Department where all the extension agents were male who were restricted socially, customary and religiously to meet with women farmers which ultimately resulted in quite serious state of gender inequality in the field of extension education. There was a contradiction regarding the appointments of female extension agents between the view point of husband and wife respondents. The main obstacles to gender mainstreaming in Agricultural Extension were: women were restricted to meet with the males other than blood relations, socio-economic insecurity, inadequate political empowerment, improper transportation and traveling facilities, residential problem for female extension workers, and male ego in respect of their vested dominance.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: gender mainstreaming, female extension agents, socio-economic insecurity, political empowerment, gender violence, gender roles
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Depositing User: Muhammad Khan Khan
Date Deposited: 19 Sep 2016 06:11
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2016 06:11
URI: http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/id/eprint/1290

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