|Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
genus inula l. (s.l.), lackia r. dawar; inula l. (s.str.), pentanema cass., duhaldea dc., dittrichia greuter, iphiolla casso, inula koelzii dawar & qaiser, inula stewartii dawar, duhaldea latifolia (dc.), lackia rhizocephala (schrenk), nula acuminata-type, pentanema divaricatum-type, duhaldea cappa-type, lackia rhizocephala-type
The genus Inula L. (s.l.) is systematically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. A synthetic approach is adopted by utilizing the data from different aspects including palynology, cypsela morphology, chemistry and phytogeography. The data is analyzed numerically as well. In all 6 genera (22 species) are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir, which includes one new genus: Lackia R. Dawar; Inula L. (s.str.), Pentanema Cass., Duhaldea DC., Dittrichia Greuter and Iphiolla Casso Two new species viz., Inula koelzii Dawar & Qaiser (already published) and Inula stewartii Dawar are described, while two new combinations (Duhaldea latifolia (DC.) Dawar & Qaiser and Lackia rhizocephala (Schrenk) Dawar) are also proposed.
All the taxa are grouped into 4 different pollen types, namely Inula acuminata-type, Pentanema divaricatum-type, Duhaldea cappa-type and Lackia rhizocephala-type, mainly on the bases of polar length, tectum pattern between spines and apices of spines. Two types viz., Inula acuminata-type and Duhaldea cappa-type have much more morphologically diverse and higher number of taxa.
Morphological data of cypselae also strengthen the existence of different genera with the exception of Inula complex (including Inula L. (s.str.) and Duhaldea DC.) which have :I: similar type of cypselae.
Twenty one taxa are analyzed for their p'1enolic constituents and most of the taxa can be delimited on the bases of presence or absence of certain phenolic constituents, Q-coumaric acid along with sakuranetin 1aesculin with sakuranetin and tricin 5-glucoside with O-coumaric acid are exclusively present in Dittrichia Greuter ,Lackia R.Dawar and lphiona Cass., respectively. However, the genera lnula L. (s.str.) and Pentanema Cass., do not have any specific compounds.
The data obtained from macro and micromorphology of cypselae, pollen grains and chemistry are analyzed numerically by clustering to study the relationships among different species and genera of lnula L. (s.1.),
As far as the distribution pattern is concerned, out of twenty one taxa 15 taxa are uniregional elements from which 7 are typically Irano-Turanian, 4 are Sino-Japanese,2 are Saharo-Sindian, one is Indian and last one is Mediterranean element. While, 5 taxa are biregional elements, out of them 3 taxa occur equally in Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese region. One of them penetrates from Irano-Turanian to Saharo-Sindian region and remaining one occurs in Indian and Saharo-Sindian region. Only one taxon is pluriregional element as it is distributed in Irano-Turanian, Euro,-Siberian and Mediterranean region. Only two species (lnula koelzii Dawar & Qaiser and I. stewartii Dawar) are found to be endemic to Kashmir (Irano-Turanian region).