I= STUDIES ON NEEM CAKE AS SOURCE OF NITROGEN ITS EFFECT ON SOIL, MICROBES AND AS AN INHIBITOR OF PESTICIDES DEGRADATION
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Title of Thesis
STUDIES ON NEEM CAKE AS SOURCE OF NITROGEN ITS EFFECT ON SOIL, MICROBES AND AS AN INHIBITOR OF PESTICIDES DEGRADATION

Author(s)
Shahida Akhtar
Institute/University/Department Details
University f Karachi/ Department of Microbiology
Session
1994
Subject
Microbiology
Number of Pages
125
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
neem cake, nitrogen, microbes, pesticides, neem seeds, fertilizer, insecticides, soil microbial biomass, carbofuran residu, endosulfan, diazinon residue

Abstract
Poor management of eco-system in Pakistan is the main source of environmental degradation, the major being soil and water. Massive use of agro-chemicals involves the risk of interfering with the quality of eco-system, dangerous from fertility and pollution point of view

To cope with the situation, and to overcome environmental harzards within our own resources, the research on neem cake ( a product left-after oil extraction from neem seeds) was initiated to find its property as a fertilizer. General observation revealed that neem cake is a good nitrogen source; when experiments were conducted in-vitro. Paddy soil supplemented with neem cake (n-hexane extracted) at the rate of 1% and 5% (W/W) produced two and four times higher ammonia nitrogen than un-supplemented soil, respectively after 10 days of application. However nitrogen release was delayed if the soil was supplemented with the ground neem cake. The expeller extracted neem cake gave a slight and slow formation of ammonia nitrogen after 10 days with 5% & 10% amendment, neem seed powder after 15 days & the water extracted neem cake after 30 days, whereas no response of ammonia nitrogen production was observed with neem oil, amendment

The studies on the effect of both type of neem cakes (n-hexane extracted & expeller extracted) on symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria have revealed that it had n-adverse effect on its growth with the exception that n-hexan extracted neem cake stimulated the growth of certain species of Rhizobium-in vitro

Investigations regarding the effect on the inhibition degradation of insecticides (Carbofuran 3G, Thiodan 35EC and Basudin 10G) revealed that neem cake amendment alongwith insecticide fortification increased the persistence of all the three insecticides from their normal are responsible for the degradation of these insecticides. The natural balance of some micro-organisms is disturbed by the addition of neem cake which helps in avoiding degradation of these insecticides, ultimate the persistent percentage increases

Keeping in view of the various aspects studies in vitro, neem cake if used in field will not have any adverse effect in the environment. The utilization of this product must be made aware to the farmers as neem tree is a native of Indo-Pak Sub-Continent. Use of neem products in agriculture will be a step toweads self-help and minimize environmental pollution due to the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers. It is better to switch over to organic matter as fertilizer which is over to organic matter as fertilizer which is the basis of green revolution

Download Full Thesis
1138.82 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents 0
110.06 KB
2 1 Introduction 7
105.73 KB
3 2 Evaluation Of Nitrogen Release From Neem Cake Amended Soil 19
268.69 KB
  2.1 Abstract 19
  2.2 Introduction 19
  2.3 Literature Review 22
  2.4 Preparation Of Test Materials 26
  2.5 Methods 31
  2.6 Results And Discussion 36
  2.7 Consclusion 42
4 3 Interaction of neem cake with beneficial soil microbes 43
318.8 KB
  3.1 Abstract 43
  . 2 Introduction 44
  3.3 Literature Review 47
  3.4 Materials 55
  3.5 Concentration Used For Pesticides/ Neem Cake/ Fertilizer 59
  3.6 Methds 61
  3.7 Results And Discussion 65
  3.8 Consclusion 75
5 4 Neem Cake As An Inhibitor Of Pesticide Degradation 78
489.27 KB
  4.1 Abstracts 78
  4.2 Literature Review 79
  4.3 Carbofuran Residue Study 82
  4.4 Endosulfan And Diazinon Residue Study 90
  4.5 Results And Discussion 99
  4.6 Conclusion 111
  4.7 References 112
  4.8 Appendix 125