Pakistan Research Repository

STUDIES ON NEEM CAKE AS SOURCE OF NITROGEN ITS EFFECT ON SOIL, MICROBES AND AS AN INHIBITOR OF PESTICIDES DEGRADATION

Akhtar, Shahida (1994) STUDIES ON NEEM CAKE AS SOURCE OF NITROGEN ITS EFFECT ON SOIL, MICROBES AND AS AN INHIBITOR OF PESTICIDES DEGRADATION. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.

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Abstract

Poor management of eco-system in Pakistan is the main source of environmental degradation, the major being soil and water. Massive use of agro-chemicals involves the risk of interfering with the quality of eco-system, dangerous from fertility and pollution point of view To cope with the situation, and to overcome environmental harzards within our own resources, the research on neem cake ( a product left-after oil extraction from neem seeds) was initiated to find its property as a fertilizer. General observation revealed that neem cake is a good nitrogen source; when experiments were conducted in-vitro. Paddy soil supplemented with neem cake (n-hexane extracted) at the rate of 1% and 5% (W/W) produced two and four times higher ammonia nitrogen than un-supplemented soil, respectively after 10 days of application. However nitrogen release was delayed if the soil was supplemented with the ground neem cake. The expeller extracted neem cake gave a slight and slow formation of ammonia nitrogen after 10 days with 5% & 10% amendment, neem seed powder after 15 days & the water extracted neem cake after 30 days, whereas no response of ammonia nitrogen production was observed with neem oil, amendment The studies on the effect of both type of neem cakes (n-hexane extracted & expeller extracted) on symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria have revealed that it had n-adverse effect on its growth with the exception that n-hexan extracted neem cake stimulated the growth of certain species of Rhizobium-in vitro Investigations regarding the effect on the inhibition degradation of insecticides (Carbofuran 3G, Thiodan 35EC and Basudin 10G) revealed that neem cake amendment alongwith insecticide fortification increased the persistence of all the three insecticides from their normal are responsible for the degradation of these insecticides. The natural balance of some micro-organisms is disturbed by the addition of neem cake which helps in avoiding degradation of these insecticides, ultimate the persistent percentage increases Keeping in view of the various aspects studies in vitro, neem cake if used in field will not have any adverse effect in the environment. The utilization of this product must be made aware to the farmers as neem tree is a native of Indo-Pak Sub-Continent. Use of neem products in agriculture will be a step toweads self-help and minimize environmental pollution due to the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers. It is better to switch over to organic matter as fertilizer which is over to organic matter as fertilizer which is the basis of green revolution

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:neem cake, nitrogen, microbes, pesticides, neem seeds, fertilizer, insecticides, soil microbial biomass, carbofuran residu, endosulfan, diazinon residue
Subjects:Biological & Medical Sciences (c) > Biological Sciences(c1) > Microbiology(c1.8)
ID Code:1221
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:04 Jan 2007
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:05

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