I= TO STUDY SEASONAL VARIATION AND THE EFFECT OF SOME CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS ON SPECIES COMPOSITION OF ALGAL FLORA IN THE WATER SUPPLIES OF KARACHI CITY AND ITS SURROUNDINGS
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Title of Thesis
TO STUDY SEASONAL VARIATION AND THE EFFECT OF SOME CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS ON SPECIES COMPOSITION OF ALGAL FLORA IN THE WATER SUPPLIES OF KARACHI CITY AND ITS SURROUNDINGS

Author(s)
Umber Khatoon
Institute/University/Department Details
University f Karachi/ Department of Botany
Session
1994
Subject
Botany
Number of Pages
298
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
algal flora, phytoplankton, cyanophyta, chrysophyta, bacillariophyta, chlorophyta, dinophyta, coscinodiscus sp., synedra ulna, s. ulana var., amphirhynchus, cocconeis placentula, cymbella ventricosa, epithemia sorex, gomphonema gracile var. aurita, mastogloia recta, navicula cryptocephala

Abstract
The distribution identification and effect of physico-chemical factors on species composition of algae in the water supply system of Karachi city and its surroundings was carried out. Of a total number of 136 species of phytoplankton, including 6 genera and 16 species of Cyanophyta 1 species of Chrysophyta, 18 genera and 39 species of Bacillariophyta, 20 genera 77 species of Chlorophyta, 2 genera 3 species of dinophyta were recorded

A seasonal variation both in quantity and quality of algal population during summer and winter was observed. Cyanophycean algae which flourished during the summer season included Merismopedia glauca, M. punctata. M. temuissima, Microcystis aeruginosa, M. flos-aquae, Oscillatoria curviceps, O. limosa and O. tenuis. During the winter season species of Bacillariophyta viz. Synedra ulna, S. ulna var. amphirhynchus, Cymbella ventricosa, Cymbella sp., Epithemia sorex, E. sorex var. gracilis, Navicula cryptocephala, N. radiosa and species of Chlorophyceae viz. Coelastrum microporum, Oedogonium inclusum, Claaophora glomerata, species of Spirogyra, Zygema and desmids were dominant

In the water supply systems (Sources), originating from Kalri lake, Haleji lake and Hub river is not directly utilized due to preponderance of algae. The presence of which produces fishy smell and unpleasant taste. The growth of algae in the water treatment plants is controlled by chlorination, which does not completely destroy the algae. Remainder algal population is eliminated by filtration through sand filter beds. At the water treatment plants 69 filter clogging algae were collected. Of these algae Microcystis aeruginosa, Coscinodiscus sp. Synedra ulna, S. ulna var. amphirhynchus Coccnneis placentula, Cymbella ventricosa, Epithemia sorex, Novicula cryptocephala N. radiosa dna Rhopalodia gibba were predominant. Of the algae which passed through sand filter beds viz., Microcystis aeruginosa, Coscinodiscus sp., Synedra ulna var. amphirhychus, Cymbella ventricosa, Epithemia sorex and Tetraedron minimum were detected in the clean water reservoirs. At the domestic water reservoirs 21 algae were commonly recorded including Merismopedia glauca, Microcystis aeruginosa, Synedra ulna, S. ulna var. amphirhynchus, Cymbella ventricosa, Epithemia sorex and Navicula cryptocephala

Of the physico-chemical factors a temperature of 29-34 C during summer was found favourable for the growth of the species of Merismopendia, Microcystis and Oscillatoria. Whereas during winter a temperature of 18-26 C was found suitable for the species of Synedra, Cymbella, Epithemia, Navicula and green algae Coelastrum microporum, oedogonium inclusum, Cladophora glomerata, and species of Spirogyra, Zyengma and desmids. The abundant growth of algae during winter on the one hand, decreases the total hardness by the precipitation of carbonates but on the other increases the pH value due to high activity of photosynthesis. The turbidity increased in summer due to organic or inorganic concentration, heavy blooms of blue-green algae and the organic detritus of the last season. High alkalinity, sodium and nitrogen was recorded in summer with the growth of blue-green algae. The lower concentration of K and PO4 in all seasons indicate that algae requires small amount of these elements for their growth, whereas, higher concentration of Ca and Mg show that these minerals are also necessary for algae. The physico-chemical results show that water supplied to the citizens of Karachi, is within the rangeof international standards

The ground water mostly contained diatoms viz. Coscinodiscus sp., synedra ulna, S. ulana var., amphirhynchus, Cocconeis placentula, Cymbella ventricosa, Epithemia sorex, Gomphonema gracile var. aurita, Mastogloia recta and Navicula cryptocephala etc. The physico-chemical properties of ground water shows that such water is not good for domestic use because it contained high counts of cholera, polio, typhoid and gastro-intestinal diseases are caused due to consumption of contaminated water

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents 0
267.03 KB
2 1 Introduction 6
96.62 KB
  1.1 Karachi City (Introduction ) 6
  1.2 Water Supply Of Karachi City 8
  1.3 River Indus 8
  1.4 Hub Dam 8
  1.5 Haleji Lake 9
  1.6 Dumottee Wells 9
  1.7 Water Treatment Plants 10
  1.8 Conveyance Of Water 10
  1.9 Significance Of Algae In Water Supplies 10
3 2 Review Of Literature 13
279.95 KB
  2.1 Distribution Of Algae Flora In Water Supplies (Part-I ) 13
  2.2 Physico-Chemical Factors Of Water And Their Relation With The Distribution Of Algae (Part-Ii ) 20
4 3 Materials And Methods (Part-I ) 33
186.21 KB
  3.1 Collectglion Of Water Samples 33
  3.2 Preservation And Storage 33
  3.3 Studies Of Algae Flora 34
  3.4 Plates I-Xi: Photographs Of Water Treatment Plants Showing Places Of Collection 35
  3.5 Map 1: Showing Sources Of Water Supply To Karachi City Including Filter Plants 46
  3.6 Map 2: Showing Places Of Collection Of Drinking Water Reservoirs From Karachi City 48
5 4 Part-Il 49
85.46 KB
  4.1 Determination Of Ph Value 49
  4.2 Determination Of Turbidity 49
  4.3 Determination Of Alkalinity 49
  4.4 Determination Of Chlorides 49
  4.5 Determination Of Total Hardness 50
  4.6 Determination Of Total Dissolved Soilds 51
  4.7 Determination Of Calcium And Magnesium 51
  4.8 Determination Of Sodium And Potassium 52
  4.9 Determination Of Total Nitrogen 53
  4.10 Determination Of Phosphate 54
6 5 Results And Discussion 59
1628.62 KB
  5.1 Seasonal Succession Of Phytoplankton 59
  5.2 Algal Flora Of Summer Season 59
  5.3 Algal Flora Of Autumn Season 60
  5.4 Algal Flora Of Winter Season 60
  5.5 Algal Flora Of Spring Season 61
  5.6 Relation Between Physico -Chemical Factors And The Distribution Of Algal Flora 156
7 6 Conclusion 242
47.04 KB
8 7 References 246
1819.09 KB