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Title of Thesis

Tahir Ali
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Karachi/ Department of Commerce
Business Administration
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
citrus fruit, kinno, proper cultivation, technical picking, handling and packaging, adequate pricing and promotion, efficient transportation, citrus standards

Globalization and technological advancement are key challenges to the business world in the 21st century. Countries, which would not cope with the changing environmental conditions, they be devastated. Developing countries like Pakistan need to concentrate on their comparative advantages, not only to survive in the global marketing competition but also benefit from globalization through fast means of communication and distribution through fast means of communication and distribution. Agriculture being the lynchpin of Pakistan’s economy needs special attention in this regard and improvement in any area of this sector affects the economy substantially. In addition to major crops (cotton, rice, wheat), Pakistan has been leading in terms of demand and consumption both in domestic and international markets. Kinno mandarin shares more than 60 percent of the total citrus production in Pakistan and is therefore at the very core of this study

Marketing of citrus fruits, in the leading citrus producing countries like the United States, Brazil, Mexico etc, has been conducted in a formalized manner. Production, picking, packaging and distribution functions are performed in a systematic and scientific way. Being a perishable commodity, international quality and packaging standards have strictly been observed. High yield, good quality and low post-harvest losses of citrus fruit in these countries, satisfying their customers considerably. Effective promotion and price control further add to customer convenience and satisfaction. In short, citrus fruit is considered a valuable commercial commodity like other manufactured consumer products

Marketing of citrus fruit in Pakistan lacks application of many international standard practices. In effect citrus fruits have been considered valuable commercial commodity to generate foreign exchange through export. Conventional methods of cultivation and non-technical harvesting and other farming functions results in low yield, high post-harvest losses and poor quality of fruit. Furthermore ineffective pricing and promotional strategies along with unscientific handling, transportation and storage functions have made the situation worst. The result is that, in-spite of substantial increase in area and production of citrus fruit; export of citrus fruit has been constant of the last decade. Markets are limited and Pakistan has not been successful to establish a name and reputation in the international markets

Comparative study of practices of marketing of citrus fruit in the leading citrus producing countries and Pakistan reveals that although Pakistan has all the natural favors, usually considered ideal for the production of good quality citrus fruit (like fertile soil, temperature variation and other climatic conditions), ineffective marketing restricts to avail the se advantages considerably, “Benefit – Cost’ comparison indicates that proper cultivation, technical picking, handling and packaging adequate pricing and promotion and efficient transportation can be achieved through effective marketing, without incurring huge cost. The benefits of these inexpensive, quick and objective tactics would be far-reaching

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4351.4 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents 0
193.38 KB
2 1 Framework Of Marketing Of Citrus Fruit In Pakistan 2
375.21 KB
  1.1 Marketing Defined 2
  1.2 The Role Of Agriculture In Pakistan’s Economy 10
  1.3 Importance Of Agricultural Marketing And Research In Pakistan 14
  1.4 Fruits In Pakistan 19
  1.5 Citrus Fruit 21
  1.6 Nutrituinal Values Of Citrus Fruit 26
  1.7 Overview Of Marketing Of Citrus Fruit In Pakistan 30
3 2 Research Plan 30
438.7 KB
  2.1 Objectives Of The Study 34
  2.2 Preamble 36
  2.3 Sources Of Data And Selection - Sampling 63
  2.4 Research Instrument/Method 70
  2.5 Data Analysis 73
  2.6 Limitations 73
  2.7 Actual Data Collection 74
4 3 World Marketing Of Citrus Fruit An Over View 78
322.39 KB
  3.1 Citrus Production Planning – An Overview 78
  3.2 The Key Contributors 80
  3.3 World Citrus Standards 84
  3.4 Provisions Of Standardization Of Citrus Fruit 88
  3.5 Grading Of Citrus Fruit 98
5 4 Packing And Branding Of Citrus Fruit 101
213.06 KB
  4.1 Packaging An Overview 101
  4.2 Citrus Packaging Standards 103
  4.3 Citrus Packinghouse Procedure 108
  4.4 Branding 115
6 5 Distribution Of Citrus Fruit 117
175.85 KB
  5.1 Market Utilization And Distribution Pattern 117
  5.2 Distribution Of Citrus Fruit An Overview 118
7 6 Pricing And Promotion Of Citrus Fruit 130
107.9 KB
  6.1 Pricing Of Citrus Fruit 130
  6.2 Stages Of Price Determination 131
  6.3 Citrus Promotion 135
8 7 Export And Processing Of Citrus Fruit 140
156.9 KB
  7.1 Global Export Of Citrus An Overview 140
  7.2 Citrus Processing 146
9 8 Marketing Of Citrus Fruit In Pakistan/Citrus Production And Standardization In Pakistan 154
592.27 KB
  8.1 Production Of Citrus In Pakistan An Overview 154
  8.2 Citrus Production In Punjab The Center Of Citrus Production In Pakistan 156
  8.3 Varieties Of Citrus Fruit Produced In Pakistan 160
  8.4 Problems Encountered With Production Of Citrus Fruit In Pakistan 169
  8.5 Standardization Of Citrus Fruit In Pakistan 183
  8.6 Granding Of Citrus Fruit 194
10 9 Packaging And Branding Of Citrus Fruit In Pakistan 197
269.09 KB
  9.1 Packaging Of Citrus Fruit For Domestic Market 197
  9.2 Branding Of Citrus Fruit 207
  9.3 Labeling 211
11 10 Distribution Of Citrus Fruit In Pakistan 213
268.85 KB
  10.1 Distribution Of Citrus Fruit An Overview 213
  10.2 Channels Of Distribution 214
  10.3 Transportation 221
  10.4 Storage Of Citrus Fruit In Pakistan 224
  10.5 Distribution Of Citrus Fruit From Orchard To Local Market 226
12 11 Pricing And Promotion Of Citrus Fruit In Pakistan 231
246.29 KB
  11.1 Pricing Of Citrus Fruit An Overview 231
  11.2 Promotion Of Citrus Fruit 245
13 12 Export Marketing And Processing Of Citrus Fruit In Pakistan 250
238.68 KB
  12.1 Citrus Export Marketing In Pakistan 250
  12.2 Citrus Export Of Pakistan 251
  12.3 Citrus Export Markets 254
  12.4 Citurs Export Opportuities 254
  12.5 Exploring New Export Markets 261
  12.6 Citrus Processing In Pakistan 264
14 13 Benefit-Cost Analysis/Benefit-Cost Comparison 271
200.04 KB
  13.1 Benefit-Cost Analysis Of Educating And Training 271
  13.2 Benefit-Cost Analysis Of Effective Application Of Standardization 273
  13.3 Benefits-Cost Analysis Of Establishing Effective Information System 273
  13.4 Conclusion 274
  13.5 Recommendations 276
15 14 Bibliography 288
964.82 KB
  14.1 Appendix 312