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BIOECOLOGY AND CONTROL OF ZYGINIDIA QUYUNI (AHMED) (TYPHLOCYBINAE: HOMOPTERA) A PEST OF WHEAT AND MAIZE IN WEST PAKISTAN

Abdul, Jabber (1974) BIOECOLOGY AND CONTROL OF ZYGINIDIA QUYUNI (AHMED) (TYPHLOCYBINAE: HOMOPTERA) A PEST OF WHEAT AND MAIZE IN WEST PAKISTAN. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.

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Abstract

Zyginidia quyumi (Ahmed) is a typhlocybine pest of high economic significance on wheat and maize in west Pakistan. It infests heavily the wheat crop in major wheat growing areas of the Punjab, and maize throughout N.W.F.P. and the Punjab. The present work was initiated to study its biology, lifehistory, ecology and control measures. Intensive sampling was made on wheat in Jhang, Lyallpur and Sahiwal districts of Punjab, and on maize in Hazara, Mardan and Peshawar districts of N.W.F.P., along with extensive samples throughout the two provinces. Studies relating to other factors of biology were made in specially established field laboratories at Tandianwala (Province Punjab) and Abbottabad (N.W.F.P.) on wheat and maize respectively The results of these studies indicate that Zyginidia quyumi female could live for 43.83 days, oviposit for 31.33 days and lay 106 eggs on maize during the months from July to October at months of April and May could live for 36.60 days, oviposit for 33.67 days and lay 137.4 eggs. On wheat Z. Quyumi female could live for 28.85 days, oviposit for 14.85 days and lay 59.42 eggs during the months of March and April. Incubation period of egg was 11.2 days during the months from July to October at Abbotatabad while it was 9.17 days during the months of March and April, and 8.89 days during the months of April and May at Tandlianwala. Total nymphal period was 16.3 days and 8.9 days during the months of March-April and April-May at Tandlianwala on wheat and maize respectively. Z. quyumi leafhopper passes 2-3 generations on wheat at Tandlianwala. At Abbottabad it passes 4-5 partly incomplete generations on maize and alternate host plants The conclusions drawn about the ecology of Z. quyumi are based on about 20000 field samples as well as several related studies. The leafhopper remained very active at temperature range of 70ºC -80ºF and relative humidity of 5% -60%. Z. quyumi species is equally attracted to ordinary and blue coloured lights and is least attracted towards red coloured light. Sex ratio (M/F) in field populations on wheat was 1.23. Mesipak variety of wheat is more susceptible to attack by Z. quyumi than desi variety. The species is more prevalent in natural populations during afternoon, at a temperature range of 90ºF-100ºF, in dry soil, on healthy crop in big areas of wheat cultivation and during the late crop stage. On maize crop it is more prevalent on J-1 variety as compared to desi variety, between 10 a.m to 12 noon, and in dry soil conditions. Total population of the species has been estimated to be more than three million leafhoppers per acre in the fields of central Punjab area. An average of 62.1 and 28.8 nymphs per leaf were observed feeding on maize at Mardan, and on wheat at Maghiana respectively. Total damage caused by leafhopper feeding to the wheat foliage at Tandlianwala and to maize foliage at Mardan appeared to be 57.25% and 66.40% respectively It has been calculated that the leafhopper (along with other insects) can cause a loss of 44% in yield of wheat crop in the Punjab area.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:zyginidia quyuni (ahmed) (typhlocybinae: homoptera), pest, wheat, maize, z. quyumi, leafhopper
Subjects:Biological & Medical Sciences (c) > Biological Sciences(c1) > Paleo-zoology(c1.10)
ID Code:1187
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:03 Jan 2007
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:05

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