Pakistan Research Repository


Syed, Muhammad Shamim (2001) STUDIES ON PHARMACOLOGY AND EFFICACY OF HERBAL DRUGS USED IN PAKISTAN. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.



The use of drugs of plant origin is from time immemorial. Since the birth of man in universe the use of drugs of plant origin was started. The system is known by various names as Ayurvedic system, Unan system, Eastern system or traditional system of medicine. The fundamental aim is to provide remedy for the certain ailments. In Pakistan economy plays an important role. The drugs are taken in the form of pills containing active principle. It cannot be ascertained to say that synthetic drugs provide such remedy as whole herb can, because during synthesis many drugs are totally or partially destroyed while in whole plant nothing is added or subtracted. The great example of utilizing the traditional system can be seen in China Nigella sative belongs to family Ranunculaceae, also called with the name black seeds commonly known in Urdu as Kalongi. It contains a yellowish volatile oil, 1.5% and a fixed oil 37.5% essential oil, albumin, sugar, mucilage, organic acids, metarbin, toxic glucosides, melanthin resembling helleborin. Ash 5% moisture and Arabic acid. Volatile oil is the active constituent. It consists of (1) carvone 45-60%, an unsaturated ketone, (2) terpene or d-limonene also called and (3) cymene. As mentioned in Nadkarni’s book (1954) seeds are used as a condiment in curries and with other aromatic substances and bitters, used to control hiccup, employed to correct purgatives, useful in indigestion, loss of appetite, fever, diarrhea, dropsy, puerperal diseases, they have action as a galactagogue. It stimulates uterine contraction. Useful in amenorrhea and dysmenorrhoea. Seeds are said to be vormicidal, used for various skin eruptions and can stop vomiting Herbal medicines as the major remedy in traditional system have been used in medical practice for thousand years. An evaluation have been carried out to find out the effect of the drug on blood, blood pressure and in muscular pain, for this purpose both males and females were divided into groups according to age. Blood examination was done before and after the completion of the results. It was concluded that there have been no adverse effects of Nigella sativa on blood and blood pressure and no remarkable change in liver enzymes was noted Safety evaluation studies on oil of Nigella sative were done, for this purpose male and female rats were used. Nigella sative oil was given in different doses. No mortality and behavioral changes were noted 2 hours after administration of Nigella sativa oil. Investigations regarding SGOT, bilirubin, total protein, total lipids, cholesterol and triglyceride remained in normal range after administration of nigella sativa oil

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:herbal drugs, nigella sative, family ranunculaceae, black seeds, herbal medicines, olive oil, lichen simplex chronicus, pruritus senilis, ispaghula husk
Subjects:Biological & Medical Sciences (c) > Medical Sciences (c2) > Pharmacology & therapeutics(c2.6)
ID Code:1185
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:03 Jan 2007
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:05

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