Pakistan Research Repository

BIONOMICS STUDIES OF CITRUS BUTTERFLY PAPILIO DEMOLEUS L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE) IN THE RAINFED ECOLOGY OF PAKISTAN

Muhammad, Ather Rafi (1995) BIONOMICS STUDIES OF CITRUS BUTTERFLY PAPILIO DEMOLEUS L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE) IN THE RAINFED ECOLOGY OF PAKISTAN. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.

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Abstract

Bionomics studies of Papilio demoleus L.( Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in the Rainfed Ecology of Pakistan revealed the mating period of adults to be 20-60 mins. after a pre-mating duration of 6-11 hours. Twenty three to forty eight hours after mating a female laid 10-45 eggs within 35-60 hours. The eggs took 58-85 hours to hatch. All the events except the fecundity rate had positive correlation with air temperature. The average duration five larval instars varied from 3-8 days and is again temperature related. The highly temperature sensitive pupal development took 7-20.5 days. The insect overwinered as pupa. There were 8 or 9 generations per years and the length of the generations(26-59 days) varied wit temperature. The overwintering generation took 159-167 days. The effect of precipitation on the developments of the insect was not evident. Mortalities were high at the early and late stages of the life cycle with a break I the middle. Some of the mortality factors were identified. Degree days to predict phonological changes were worked out. A formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bactospeine, was found highly effective in controlling the pest. The insect infested many citrus varieties with differential preferences

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:citrus butterfly, papilio demoleus l, pupal, insect, bacillus thuringiensis, bactospeine
Subjects:Biological & Medical Sciences (c) > Biological Sciences(c1) > Paleo-zoology(c1.10)
ID Code:1177
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:03 Jan 2007
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:05

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