I= THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SARACA INDICA, CAPPARIS DECIDUAS AND LOTUS GRACINII
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Title of Thesis
THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SARACA INDICA, CAPPARIS DECIDUAS AND LOTUS GRACINII

Author(s)
Ghulam Sarwar
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Pharmacognosy/ University of Karachi
Session
2002
Subject
Pharmacy
Number of Pages
206
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
saraca indica, capparis deciduas, lotus gracinii, natural drugs, unani medicine, antibacterial activities, antifungal activities, hypoglycemia activities, hypoglycemic activity, hypotensive activity

Abstract
Three natural drugs Saraca indica, Capparis decidua and Lotus garcinii of medicinal importance are utilized in the Unani system of medicine were investigated scientifically. Out of these three, Saraca indica, is very well known for its use in gynecological disorders treatment, was subjected to chemical analysis. Whereas the other two medicinal plants viz. Capparis decidua is utilized in rheumatism and as counter irritant and Lotus garcinii for treating skin ailments were evaluated from the bioactivity' point of view.

Saraca indica showed positively the presence of flavonoid and tannin type of molecules and chemical methodology led to the isolation of two flavonoid, two tannins and 3,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde and 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl hexadecen-l-ol compounds. The different compounds so separated physico-chemically and chromatographically were designated as compounds) -6. Structures of these isolates were determined by chemical and spectroscopic techniques including mass spectrometry, proton and carbon magnetic resonance. The ambiguous assignments of isolated flavonoid and tannins were resolved through spectroscopic comparisons. Consequently, it was inferred that these constituents consist of ellagic acid, catechin, quercitin and quercitrin. These types of the compounds are reported for the first time from Saraca indica.

The hypotensive activity of Capparis decidua ethane! extract at a dose of 1-30 mg/Kg .exerted a dose dependent fall in blood pressure and heart rate in experimental animals. Whereas in guinea pig atria the extract caused a concentration dependent up to one mg/ml decrease in the force and rate of atria contractions. However, the extract displayed inhibition of nor-epinephrine or potassium induced contractions. Furthermore it inhibited the contraction at submaximal level with I mg extract produced with acetylcholine, histamine and histidine. All this clearly manifest that direct relaxation action of Capparis decidua extract on myocardium and blood vessels could be responsible for its hypotensive action. In continuation of the biological study of the ethanolic extract of Cap paris decidua was subjected to anti-hyperlipidemic effects wherein the blood lipid levels in rats with hyper 1ipidemia were determined after IP administration: of an ethanolic extract produced a significant decrease of blood triglycerides and total cholesterol.

Lotus garcinii was studied for bioactivity and a battery of assays was carryout in different extracts, which include antibacterial, antifungal and hypoglycemia activities. The toxicity assessment carried out as acute systemic and intracutaneous toxicity as well as test for hemolytic activity. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate butanol and water extract of La/us garcinii showed different degree of inhibition profiles. It was noticed that extracts were found to be active against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria such as Bacillus subtilus, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseuodomonas aeruginosa, whereas the antifungal activity of the extract was noted against Microsporum canis, Pleuroetus oustreatus and Candida albicans. These findings very clearly specify that Lo/us garcinii could inhibit selective species of bacteria and fungi.

Lotus. garcinii was also studied for hypoglycemic activity: The extract of whole plant found to possess hypoglycemic action in strep, tozotocin-induced rats and evinces hypoglycemic activity in experimental diabetes ranging from 40-70% of its onset to reduce blood sugar level. Severe toxicity profile was noted when the extract of Lotus garcinii was subjected to acute to acute system toxicity and intracutaneou toxicity in experimental animals. The symptoms of toxicity in intracuatenous test showed erythema and edema whereas breathing problem& frequently observed during the study period. The blood hemolytic test (If the extract of Lotus garcinii furnished a mild activity signifying little response.

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1 0 Contents I
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2 1 Part One 21
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3 2 Part Two 71
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4 3 Part Three 144
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