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Title of Thesis

Muhammad Javed Zaki
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Karachi
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
magrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid, sclerotia, cotton, sunflower, streptomyces sp., antagonistic micro-organisms, bacillus sp., r. leguminosarum, r.meliloti, rhizobium japonicum

The sclerotia of Macrophomina phaseolina increased in soil planted under cotton, Okara or sunflower. Sunflower showed high susceptibility (100%) followed by Okara (69%) and cotton (47%). Number of sclrotia declined by 51% in cotton-Iucerne-cotton, 54% in cotton-wheat-cotton, 36% in cotton-mustard-mung-cotton, 34% in cotton-wheat-dhaincha-cotton, 47% in cotton-garlic-cotton, 33% in cotton-onion-cotton and 27% in cotton-wheat-ginger-cotton rotations as compared to 19-23% reduction in dry fallow. Paddy cultivation in Macrophomina infested field showed promise in the inactivation of sclerotia from soil since number of sclerotia declined by 83% at Karachi and were eliminated at Lahore after 12 weeks sampling. Use of green manure @ 1% w/w was more effective in reducing number of sclerotia by 46% in dhaincha, 35% in moth and 43% in berseem. Similarly addition of dry organic substrate @ 5% w/w reduced number of sclerotia by 50% in kallar grass and 37% in saw dust amendment. Control of Macrophomina infection on sunflower observed was 69% in sawdust and 45% in kallar grass amendments. Amendment of soil with fertilizers @ 10% w/w showed a rduction in number of sclerotia within 2 weeks in higro (100%), plant food (91%), fish meal (95%) and bone meal (73%). Complete control of Macrophomina infection was observed when higro, fish meal or plant food were used. The reduction in population of M. phaseolina and its infection on mung seedlings may be due to greater proportion of actinomycetes in higro, fish meal and plant food

Microbial antagonists multiplied on wheat straw applied in furrows @ 0.1% w/w reduced Macrophomina infection on mung by 86% in Paecilomyces lilacinus, 53% in Streptomyces sp. , 43% in Aspergillus Candidus and Rhizobium leguminosarum as compared to control. Organic amendments with kallar grass previously inoculated with microbial antagonists were more effective than used alone and Macrophomina infection on sunflower reduced by 52% in Arachniotus sp., 50% in Bacillus sp., and 54% in Streptomyces sp. Sunflower stem or root pieces previously colonized by Macrophomina phaseolina and treated with Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium virens or Paecilomyces did not survive after 1 week burial in soil showing greater competitive ability of the antagonists. Coating seeds with microbial antagonists give promising results against Macrophomina infection on mung, sunflower, okara, cotton, gram and mustard both under laboratory and field conditions. Complete control of Macrophomina infection was observed where T. harzianum and Streptomyces sp., were used on gram and mustard., Aspergillus candidus on gram; Rhizobium sp., on okra were effective under field conditions. It pot experiment bacterization of seeds with Rhizobium Japonicum reduced infection by 60% mung, 47% on okara and 38% on sunflower; R. leguminosarum by 48% on sunflower and 57% on mung; R.meliloti by 71% on mung seedlings as compared to untreated control

A 7 day mulching treatment proved to be the most effective method to eradicate the sclerotial propagules from soil with 100% control of Macrophomina infection on test plants. The sclerotia of M. Phaseolina which survived at 20cm depth showed greater vulnerability to antagonistic micro-organisms, where reduction in population was 40% in Streptomyces sp., and 25% in Bacillus sp., as compared to 20% in control and eliminated when brought back to the surface followed by another 4 or 7 day mulch treatment

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1449.6 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
84.5 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
100.02 KB
3 2 Materials And Methods 8
66.05 KB
  2.1 Preparation Of Sclerotial Inoculum 8
  2.2 Artificial Infestation Of Soil With Sclerotia 8
  2.3 Isolation And Enumeration Of Sclerotia 9
  2.4 Frequency Of Colonization And Infection Percentage 11
  2.5 Antimicrobial Activity Of Soil Microorganisms 11
4 3 Experimental Results 12
1132.16 KB
  3.1 Effect Of Different Crops 12
  3.2 Effect Of Crop Rotation 12
  3.3 Inactivation Of Sclerotia Of Macrolphomina Phaseolina Under Paddy Cultivation 22
  3.4 Effect Of Soil Moisture 22
  3.5 Effect Of Organic Amendment 26
  3.6 Effect Of Anolla 45
  3.7 Effect Of Fertilizers 50
  3.8 Effect Of Microbial Antagonists 58
  3.9 Combined Effect Of Organic Amendment And Microbial Antagonist 78
  3.10 Combined Effect Of Organic Amendment And N-Fertilizer 85
  3.11 Combined Effect Of Microbial Antagonists And Fertilizers 89
  3.12 Combined Effect Of Organic Amendment, Microbial Antagonists And N-Fertilizer 92
  3.13 Compined Effect Of Organic Amendment, Microbial Antagonists And N-Fertilizer 97
  3.14 Effect Of Soil Solarization By Polyethylene Mulching 102
  3.15 Relative Efficiency Of Polyethylene Mulching In Reducing Population Of Sclerotia Of Macrophomina In Soil 108
  3.16 Effect Of Soil Solarization At Different Field Locations 112
  3.17 Effect Of Soil Muching Treatment And Turning Over Of Soil 114
  3.18 Effect Of Soil Solarization On Disease Development 118
  3.19 Record Of Soil Temperature To Predict Efficacy Of Mulching Treatment 120
  3.20 Microbial Or Chemical Analysis Following Soil Solarization 123
  3.21 Effect Of 2hr Temperature Cycle 127
  3.22 Combined Effect Of Heat Treatment And Biological Antagonist Fungicides/N-Fertilizers 127
  3.23 Induction Of Suppressiveness 135
5 4 Discussion 141
268.57 KB
  4.1 Literature Cited 156
  4.2 Acknowledgment 168