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BIONOMIC STUDIES OF COMMON MORMON, PAPILIO POLYTES L. IN COMPARISON WITH CITRUS BUTTERFLY, PAPILIO DEMOLEUS L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE) FROM LOWER SINDH, PAKISTAN

Munir, Arshad (2004) BIONOMIC STUDIES OF COMMON MORMON, PAPILIO POLYTES L. IN COMPARISON WITH CITRUS BUTTERFLY, PAPILIO DEMOLEUS L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE) FROM LOWER SINDH, PAKISTAN. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.

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Abstract

Bionomic studies of common mormon butterfly papilio polytes L., its female forms f. polytes and f. stichius were observed and compared with that of citrus butterfly, Papilio demoleus L. The pests were reared on curry leaf, (Murraya koenigii) and citrus plant Kaghzi lime (Citrus aurantifolia Christm) in Tando Muhammad Khan lower Singh, (Pakistan). Mating period of P. polytes f. polytes was noted as 3-6 hours, P. polytes f. polytes laid 27.4+2.45 eggs P. polytes f. stichius laid 28.6+2.58 eggs whereas P. demoleus laid 27.7+3.31 eggs P. polytes f. polytes eggs took 2.5-10 days to hatch, P. polytes f. stichius 2.5-10 days and P. demoleus 1.5-6 days. The minimum and maximum duration of five larval instars of P. polytes f. polytes was 2.9+0.29 and 3.5+0.63 days, P. polytes f. stichius 2.7+0.10 and 3.4+0.53 days and in P. demoleus it was 1.8+0.12 and 2.9+0.10 days. While the pupal duration was noted as in P. demoleus it was noted as 6-20 days. Majority of the off springs of a female froms P. polytes resemble their parents while few differ, and some times have poor fertility. Variation in adult wing pattern was also noted. The biotic factors including predators such as praying amntis, ants, common garden lizard, (Calotes versicolor) and that of parasites Trichogramma chilonis, Pteromalus puparium play the major role in mortalities in early to late stages of the pest. All the stages except fecundity rate had negative correlation with temperature Nine generations of P. polytes, 9 generations of P. polytes f. stichius and 13 generations of P. demoleus were recorded in a year. The feeding effect of curry leaf and 10 different citrus varieties was also noted on pest survival. As in P. polytes f. polytes and P. polytes f. stichius the (G.I. value) was higher and lower on Curry leaf, Citrus urillow and Sangtra coorg while in P. demoleus it was on kaghzi lime, Citrus willow and Curry leaf. Effects of artificial diets on adults was also noted and it was found that only 15% honey solution play major role in fecundity rate and survival of the adults

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:mormon, papilio polytes l., citrus butterfly, papilio demoleus l., f. polytes, f. stichius, murraya koenigii, p. demoleus
Subjects:Biological & Medical Sciences (c) > Biological Sciences(c1) > Paleo-zoology(c1.10)
ID Code:1081
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:19 Feb 2007
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:04

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