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Title of Thesis

Akhtar Baloch
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Karachi
Public Administration
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
civil bureaucracy, pakistan, political development, constitutional development, administrative system, political system, political stability, bureaucratic system, general ayub, civil service of pakistan, general yahya khan, bhutto, administrative reforms

Political development is considered as an instrument for the strengthening of representative institutions in a political system. Political development increases the level of participation and the capacity of the political institutions to accommodate the change for the maintenance of' the political system. This correlation is very significant in the context or political development which is linked with the constitutional development and it becomes an important source for administrative reforms in the form of constitutional enactments in the administrative system.

The pace of political process in Pakistan had been very slow from 1947 to1970, and as a result the political culture as being an important component of the political system could not develop. Particularly, during the rule of General Ayub (1958-69) political activities were banned and political parties being the representatives of the people were not allowed to participating in the political process. There top ranking leadership was disqualified to take part in political activities through the notorious laws such as EBDO. Therefore, the Political parties in Pakistan failed to impose controls on the civil bureaucracy due to the absence of effective political structure and organization.

The administrative reforms of 1973 were the first of its kind which were formulated by the 'Representative Regime' and implemented. The immediate impact of the implementation of the administrative reforms of 1973 drastically changed cadre the Civil Services of Pakistan (CSP). The (CSP), was abolished; the reservation of posts Ii.)r members of the CSP and other elite services was discontinued, the CSP Academy was abolished and a joint training system was introduced, the domain of the All-Pakistan Services newly-constituted as the All-Pakistan Unified Grade was expanded to include a majority of non-CSP and non-PSP officers, and finally it also adopted of a uniform scales of pay which eliminated the financial advantage of the CSP in salary structure and introduced a system of lateral recruitment.

Our study makes it evident that the civil bureaucracy in Pakistan exercised a dominant role in policy-making, and it was due to the weakness of representative institution. Our findings also support Riggs' view that 'the political function tends to be appropriated, in considerable measure, by bureaucrats in a polity with weak political institutions. However, the success of administrative reforms absolutely depends on the nature of the political system, including certain key variables like the nature of reform, the values of reformers and administrators, timing. and the political leadership.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
580.39 KB
  0.1 Introduction 1
  0.2 Theoretical Framework 3
  0.3 Scope And Objective Of The System 11
  0.4 Research Questions 18
  0.5 Hypothesis 19
  0.6 Research Methodology 20
  0.7 Organization Of Study 21
2 1 Political And Constitutional Development During British Colonial Period 1858-1947 25
411.74 KB
  1.1 The Government Of India Act 1858 28
  1.2 The Indian Councils Act 1861 31
  1.3 The Indian Councils Act 1892 34
  1.4 The Government Of India Act 1909 36
  1.5 The Government Of India Act 1919 39
  1.6 The Government Of India Act 1935 43
  1.7 The Indian Independence Act Of 1947 48
3 2 Political And Constitutional Development In Pakistan From 1947-1958 55
754.79 KB
  2.1 Establishment Of Government 59
  2.2 The Dilemma For Constitution Making 68
  2.3 Material Law In Lahore 75
  2.4 Dismissal Of Prime Minister Nazimuudin 76
  2.5 The Civil Bureaucracy 80
  2.6 Politics Of Regionalism 81
  2.7 Dissolution Of The First Constituent Assembly 85
  2.8 The New Cabinet 89
  2.9 The Constitution Of 1956 91
4 3 Political And Constitution 108
585.56 KB
  3.1 The Era Of Controlled Democracy 108
  3.2 The System Of Basic Democracies 112
  3.3 The Constitution Of 1962 118
  3.4 Revival Of Party System 120
  3.5 The Civil Bureaucracy 121
  3.6 Regionalism And Opposition To The System 122
  3.7 The Presidential Election Of 1965 127
  3.8 The Decline Of General Ayub Khan 129
  3.9 General Yahya Khan And The New Martial Law 134
  3.10 Legal Framework Order 135
  3.11 The General Election Of 1970 137
  3.12 Question Of Transfer Of Power 139
  3.13 The Army Action And Fall Of East Pakistan 141
5 4 Political And Constitutional Of Elopement In The New Pakistan From 1971-1977 150
406.66 KB
  4.1 Bhutto And Program For Reform And Change 154
  4.2 Efforts For The Constitution Making 158
  4.3 The Constitution Of 1973 159
  4.4 The Elections Of 1977 Pna Movement And Fall The Regime 169
6 5 Development To The Administrative System In Pakistan Till 1972 182
793.52 KB
  5.1 Development Of The Civil Bureaucracy 182
  5.2 Development Of The Administrative System During 189
  5.3 All Pakistan Services 190
  5.4 Central Services Of Pakistan 194
  5.5 The Administrative Reforms In Pakistan 204
  5.6 Civil Bureaucracy And The Administrative Reforms 214
7 6 The Administrative Reforms Of 1973: Its Formulation And Implementation 244
1010.4 KB
  6.1 Formulation Of The Reforms 245
  6.2 The Debate Of The Reforms 246
  6.3 The Issues Of The Reforms 247
  6.4 The Based Of The Administrative Reforms Of 1973 249
  6.5 Implementation Of The Reforms 267
  6.6 Basic Grades 268
  6.7 The Reforms And The Civil Services Of Pakistan 270
  6.8 The Administration Structure After The Reforms Of 1973 275
  6.9 Occupational Groups 285
  6.10 The Administrative Structure After Reforms 294
  6.11 Personnel Administration 297
  6.12 Legal Frame Work 298
  6.13 Recruitment And The Quota System 301
  6.14 Training 306
  6.15 Promotion 308
8 7 Conclusion 318
566.1 KB
  7.1 Appendices 338
  7.2 Bibliography 342