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IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF CIVIL BUREAUCRACY IN PAKISTAN

Baloch, Akhtar (2003) IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF CIVIL BUREAUCRACY IN PAKISTAN. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.

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Abstract

Political development is considered as an instrument for the strengthening of representative institutions in a political system. Political development increases the level of participation and the capacity of the political institutions to accommodate the change for the maintenance of' the political system. This correlation is very significant in the context or political development which is linked with the constitutional development and it becomes an important source for administrative reforms in the form of constitutional enactments in the administrative system. The pace of political process in Pakistan had been very slow from 1947 to1970, and as a result the political culture as being an important component of the political system could not develop. Particularly, during the rule of General Ayub (1958-69) political activities were banned and political parties being the representatives of the people were not allowed to participating in the political process. There top ranking leadership was disqualified to take part in political activities through the notorious laws such as EBDO. Therefore, the Political parties in Pakistan failed to impose controls on the civil bureaucracy due to the absence of effective political structure and organization. The administrative reforms of 1973 were the first of its kind which were formulated by the 'Representative Regime' and implemented. The immediate impact of the implementation of the administrative reforms of 1973 drastically changed cadre the Civil Services of Pakistan (CSP). The (CSP), was abolished; the reservation of posts Ii.)r members of the CSP and other elite services was discontinued, the CSP Academy was abolished and a joint training system was introduced, the domain of the All-Pakistan Services newly-constituted as the All-Pakistan Unified Grade was expanded to include a majority of non-CSP and non-PSP officers, and finally it also adopted of a uniform scales of pay which eliminated the financial advantage of the CSP in salary structure and introduced a system of lateral recruitment. Our study makes it evident that the civil bureaucracy in Pakistan exercised a dominant role in policy-making, and it was due to the weakness of representative institution. Our findings also support Riggs' view that 'the political function tends to be appropriated, in considerable measure, by bureaucrats in a polity with weak political institutions. However, the success of administrative reforms absolutely depends on the nature of the political system, including certain key variables like the nature of reform, the values of reformers and administrators, timing. and the political leadership

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:civil bureaucracy, pakistan, political development, constitutional development, administrative system, political system, political stability, bureaucratic system, general ayub, civil service of pakistan, general yahya khan, bhutto, administrative reforms
Subjects:Social Sciences(g) > Public Administration(g17)
ID Code:1058
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:19 Dec 2006
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:04

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