This series of experiments were conducted to determine different factors affecting the bulb and seed production of promising cultivars of onions. This dissertation consists of two parts. Part-1 envisages the screening of local onion cultivars for bulb production and effect of various factors including plant population, time of sowing, fertilizer application, weeds management practices and field curing treatments. Part-II, encompasses the evaluation of cultivars for seed production and different factors affecting seed production.
The first three chapters deal with introduction, literature review and general methodology used in various experiments. Chapter-4 and 10 give information about different characteristics of ten cultivars collected from different localities and deal with screening for bulb and seed production respectively. On the basis of promising yield and yield contributing parameters, five cultivars namely Naurang local, panyalla local, Phulkara, Shah Alam local and Swat-1 were selected for further studies. The longest and maximum number of leaves were recorded in cv. Shah Alam local followed by Naurang local and Pahyalla local. The highest bulbs survival percentage, bulb diameter and bulb weight as well as maximum bulb yield were found in cv Naurang local succeeded by sprouting and flowers numgel-1 flower diameter and gave maximum seed yield. It was followed by cvs, Shah Alam local, Panyalla ocal and Swat-1
The optimum time of planting plays an important role in cultivars performance and obtaining maximum as well profitable yield. Chapter-5 pertains to the effect of different planting dates and transplanting seedlings of different age on the bulb yield and yield contributing parameters of onion cultivars. The planting dates include 27th October 11th November 27th November, 11th December and 26th December. The transplanting was done old seedlings. The early planting viz. 27th October took least time for germination and its seedlings contained longest and maximum number of leaves. The transplanting of oldest seedlings viz. early sown (27th October) produced maximum bulb diameter, bulb weight, bulb survival percentage and highest bulb yield. The yield and yield contributing traits decreased progressively with delay in planting or decrease in age of seedlings
Optimum plant density contributes significantly towards yields. The effect of planting densities on the onion bulb yield and yield related characteristics are discussed in Chapter06. Three planting densities viz 20, 30, and 40 plants m-2 were tested. The thinly populated plants (20 plants m-1) contained longest and maximum number leaves greater bulb diameter and bulb weight. However, the highest bulb yields were achieved with 30 plants m-2 density followed by 20 and 40 plants m2
The fertilizer application is one of the most important factors for obtaining high and sustained productivity. Chapter-7 relates to the influence of different doses of NPK application on bulbs production. Different levels of NPK significantly affected the number of leaves plant-1 leaf length bulb diameter & weight bulb survival percentage and bulb yield. The higher doses of NPK i.e. 200-150-100 kg ha-1 enhanced the number of leaves length of leaves, bulb diameter and weight, number of thick neck bulbs and produced the maximum bulb yields
Weeds take heavy toll. The efficacy of different weed management practices is discussed in Chapter-8. Weeds control measures including weedy check, one hand weeding, three hand weeding, application of Pendimathalin 330EC @ 3.125 liters ha-1 and S-Metolachlor 960EC @ 2.5 liter ha-1 were used for weeds control and their effect on bulb yield. Three weedings proved superior in controlling weeds density, reducing biomass yield, enhancing all growth parameters and boosting bulb yield. It was followed by Pendimathalin 330EC @ 3.125 ha-1 and S-Metolachlor 960EC @ 2.5 liter ha-1
Chapter-9 is exclusively deivoted to post-harvest techniques viz. field curing of bulbs for different periods (5, 10, 15 and 20 days) and the effect of root burning on roots re-growth. The data on loss of bulb’s weight of different cultivars afger 30,60, 90 and 120 days of storage indicated that maximum loss in weight of bulbs was recorded in cv. Phulkara while minimum loss was found in cvs. Shah Alam local and Naurang local. Five days field curing resuted in less loss in number of bulbs. Large size bulbs lost much weight as compared to small and medium size bulbs. The sprouting of bulbs after 90 and 120 days of storage revealed that maximum spruting occurred in cv. Swat-1 followed by Phulkara while minimum sprouting was noticed in cvs. Shah Alam loca and Naurang local. Large size bulbs sprouted the most succeeded by small and mudium size bulbs. The least sprouting occurred in 5-days field cured bulbs. The burning of roots did not show any significant effect fo roots re-growth was observed in 5, 10 and 15 days field cured bulbs after 90 and 120 days of storage. However, it occurred in 120 days field cured bulbs.
The application of different rates of NPK on seed yield and seed yield contributing parameters has discussed in Chapter-11. Highest rate of NPK (200-150-100 kg ha-1) delayed sprouting and flowering. However, it encouraged the number of shoots, length and number of leaves increased number of flowers umbel-1, umbel diameter and seed yield
Chapter-12 deals with the effect of bulb sizes viz. small (2.5-3.5 cm) medium (3.5-4.5 cm) and large (<4.5 cm) on bulb sprouting morphological and reproductive growth parameters and seed production of different cultivars of onion. The bulb sizes differed significantly with regard to number of shoots plant-1 Large size bulbs contained the maximum number of umbel plant-1, longest flower stalks, highest number of flowers nubel-1 and maxmum seed yield