I= AGRO BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SORGHUM THROUGH MANAGEMENT OF LEGUMES INTERCROPPING AND METHODS OF NITROGEN APPLICATION
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Title of Thesis
AGRO BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SORGHUM THROUGH MANAGEMENT OF LEGUMES INTERCROPPING AND METHODS OF NITROGEN APPLICATION

Author(s)
Abdur Rashid
Institute/University/Department Details
Faculty Of Agriculture/ Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan
Session
2004
Subject
Agronomy
Number of Pages
157
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
agro biological studies, sorghum, legumes, intercropping, nitrogen application, mungbean, guar, l. erysimi, foliar application

Abstract
To study the effect of management of legumes intercropping and methods of nitrogen application on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) two research experiments were conducted at Farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Ratta Kulachi, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during the year 1999-00 and 2000-01. In the first experiment, two different intercrops viz.mungbean (Vigna radiate) and guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) were studied in three geometrical patterns of the base crop (sorghum). In the second experiment, four different levels of nitrogen (0.60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) were evaluated with two different methods (soil application and foliar spray) of application on the growth characteristics and grain yield of sorghum. The experiments were planted on 22nd and 26th July during 1999 and 20000, respectively. Agronomic data recorded on different growth characteristics and grain yield of the crop, were analyzed statistically through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test was employed to compute the significance of variance among treatment means

The data revealed that the Leaf Area Index (LAI) number of grains panicle-1 weight of grain panicle-1 grain and stalk yield and grain protein content of sorghum were maximumin the geometrical pattern of double row (30/90 cm) strip planting as compared to triple row (30/120 cm) strips and conventional planting of single rows (60 cm apart). The growing of legumes (mungbean and guar) as intercrops significanrly reduced the yield components (number and weitht of grains panicle-1) and grain yield of sorghum. But, the additional harvest obtained from the intercrops compensated more than the losses incurred in sorghum yield. The sorghum grain protein content was also increased with intercropping of both the legumes than sole sorghum. The highest LER of 1.55 and 1.56 was recorded in case of double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern of sorghum with two rows of mungbean as intercrops between 90 cm space of sorghum strips during 1999-00 and 2000-01 respectively. Similarly highest net income of Rs. 28137/50 and Rs. 26151/- with intrercropped between the double row (30/90 cm) strips of sorghum during 1999-00 and 2000-01 respectively. This suggested that the geometrical pattern of double row (30/90 cm) strips of sorghum with two rows of mungbean as intercrops between the 90 cm space might be the most efficient practice for optimum utilization of the available resources and maximizing the net income from the same piece of land as compared to monoculture and legume intercropping inconventional method of planting (60 cm apart single rows) and or in the ripple row strips (30/120 cm) planting of sorghum

The yield components and grain yield of sorghum were increased linearly and significantly up to the level of 90 kg N ha-1 but additional increment in nitrogen supply could not show any perceptible improvement in growth of sorghum.In case of method of application, soil applied nitrogen was found superior than foliar spray of it in all the traits of growth parameters and yield. On the basis of two years average data, the different levels of nitrogen 60,90 and 120 kg ha-1 applied through soil gave 26.09, 33.26 and 33.40 percent increase in LAI

L. erysimi was larger in size at 4 aphids per plant followed by 8 and 12 aphids per plant. The hind tibial length of female parasitoids was more at the lowest initial population denisity and vice versa. The male parasitoids were large-size on moderate aphid population density followed by low and high population densities. The percent was highest at 800 and minimum at 2400 aphids per brassica box with identical pattern for the percentage in adult emergence. The parasitoids took more time to develop on dense aphid populations followed by moderate and low ones. A strong relationship between aphids and female parasitoids exited in field as well as in pot experiments. The regression among different moisture levels, percent parasitism of D. rapae, row spacing by intercropping and aphid’s population densities was strongly affiliated with the second and third trophic levels in terms of body size

Download Full Thesis
1529.67 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
151.36 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
59.12 KB
3 2 Review of literature 6
317.25 KB
  2.1 Growth of sorghum as influenced by planting geometry 6
  2.2 Effect of intercropping on the yield attributes and yield of sorghum 9
  2.3 Effect of nitrogen on the growth behaviour of sorghum 19
  2.4 Soil and foliar application of nitrogen 25
  2.5 Grain quality of sorghum as influenced by cultural practices 35
4 3 Materials and Methods 36
78.35 KB
  3.1 Studies on sorghum in relation to planting geometry and legumes intercropping system 36
  3.2 Effect of soil versus foliar application of nitrogen on the yield of sorghum 42
5 4 Results and Discussion 45
744.95 KB
  4.1 Studies on sorghum in relation to planting geometry and legumes intercropping system 45
  4.2 Effect of soil versus foliar application of nitrogen on the yield of sorghum 94
6 5 Summary 121
74.13 KB
7 6 Conclusions 128
287.09 KB
8 7 Recommendations 131
12.04 KB
9 8 Literature Cited 132
166.24 KB
10 9 Appendics 149
93.75 KB