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Title of Thesis

Muhammad Safdar Baloch
Institute/University/Department Details
Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan/ Faculty of Agriculture
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
rice (oryza sativa l), cultivation technologies, randomized complete block design (rcbd), plant height, productive tillers, unproductive tillers, panicles, spikelets, sterility, normal kernels percentage, 1000-grain weight, paddy yield, leaf area index, net assimilation rate (nar), insect pests

A research project was initiated at the Agricultural Research Institute. Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan during 2002 and 2003: to provide appropriate rice cultivation technologies that are agronomically practicable and economically viable under the agro-climatic conditions of the area. The research project was based on field-oriented problems faced by the paddy growers, which was also evident from face to face interviews by 50 rice growers, actively involved in rice production from major rice growing villages of the area. The field experiments relating to time of transplanting and number of seedlings hill-1 and techniques for weed control in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split-plots arrangements, replicated 4 times. The transplanting dates of nursery and methods of planting were maintained in main plots while the number of seedlings hill-1 and weed control techniques were kept as sub-plots. The sub-plot size was 2X5 m2. The trial pertaining to impact of seeding techniques in transplantged and direct wet-seeded rice was designed in RCB with a plot size 3X5m2 replicated and 4 times. Well-adapted coarse rice variety IR-6 was used in the research project. Thirty days old rice nursery was used in transplanted plots while wet pre-germinated seed was broadcast in direct seeded plots. Data were recorded on various growth and yield parameters like plant height (cm) productive tillers m-2 unproductive tillers m-2 panicles m-2 spikelets panicle-1 sterility and normal kernels percentage, 1000-grain weight (g) paddy yield (t ha-1) leaf area index (LAI), net assimilation rate (NAR) at 45 and 90 days after sowing (DAS), stem borer moths resting behaviour at 30, 45 and 60 DAS and white heads plant-1 after 90 DAS in all experiments of the project

The sample size in experiment 1 was determined by using simple random sampling procedure of probability sampling. A sampling frame was developed that carried details of farmers involved in rice production. This was identified by collecting information from the key informants. The findings of the survey elucidated that water shortage high cost of inputs, non-availability of skilled labour during peak planting season, sub-optimal plant population, weeds and pest infestation high dependence of knowledge on nearby growers and low price of rice in the local market were the major restrictions in higher yields of rice. In experiment 2, the effects of transplanting dates and number of seedlings hill-1 were found to be significant in most of the agronomic and physiological parameters studied. The highest paddy yield during 2002 and 2003 (5 and 8.1 t ha-1) respectively, higher net return of Rs.7,830 and 23,330 ha-1 and benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of 0.44 and 1.32 were recorded on 20th June planted crop with 1 seedling hill-1 during both the experimental years. Similarly in experiment 3 the effect of planting techniques (transplanting vs. direct seedling) and weed control practices including granular herbicide Sunstar 15WG (Ethoxy sulfuron) conventional hand weeding and herbicide Machete 60EC (Butachlor) significantly influenced the yield and yield contributing attributes during either year of the study Both the Sunstar and Machete application proved their efficacy against the weeds but could not match with hand weeding treatment. Minimum weed population m-2 dry weed control strategies

On the basis of research findings, it is concluded that conventional transplanting technique on flat with a plant-to-plant and row-to-row spacing of 20 cm is most suitable on planting date 20th June with 1 seedling hill-1 Among weed control practices, hand weeding is most effective followed by herbicide treatment Machete 60EC. Nursery preparation and seedling broadcasting of parachute technology although, a cumbersome job but produced higher paddy yield and net return per unit area

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2237.54 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
146.21 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
32.96 KB
3 2 Review of literature 5
582.69 KB
  2.1 Planting time 5
  2.2 Planting technique(s ) 11
  2.3 Crop physiology 20
  2.4 Rice Weeds 39
  2.5 Rice herbicides 47
  2.6 Socio-economic Status 69
  2.7 Rice insect pests 71
4 3 Materials and Methods 74
76.84 KB
  3.1 Agro-ecological conditions 74
  3.2 Soil status 74
  3.3 Land preparation 75
  3.4 Fertilizer applicatilon 75
  3.5 Variety 75
  3.6 Seed preparation 76
  3.7 Nursery preparation 76
  3.8 Parachute nursery preparation 76
  3.9 Transplanting and main field mangement 76
  3.10 Water mangement 77
  3.11 Layout and design 77
  3.12 Statistical analysis 77
  3.13 Obervations recorded 79
  3.14 plant height at maturity (cm ) 79
  3.15 Number of tillers (m-2) 79
  3.16 Number of panicles (m-2) 79
  3.17 Number of spikelets panicle-1 80
  3.18 Sterility and normal kernel percentage 80
  3.19 1000-grain weight (g ) 80
  3.20 Paddy yield (t ha-1) 80
  3.21 Straw yield (t ha-1) 80
  3.22 Number of leaves plant-1 81
  3.23 Leaf area index (m-2) 81
  3.24 Net assimilation rate (g m-2day-1) 81
  3.25 Stem bprer moths resting behaviour 81
  3.26 White heads plant-1 82
  3.27 Benefit cost ratio (BCR ) 82
  3.28 Weed sampling 82
  3.29,30 Observations recorded 83
5 4 Experimetn 1. Quantitative assessment of social and some input variables relating to rice production in Dera Ismail Khan 84
1292.27 KB
  4.1 Area under rice and source of irrigation 86
  4.2 Experiment-2 time of transplanting and number of seedlings hill-1 in relation to stand establishment and productivity of transplanted rice 98
  4.3 Experiment-3 techniques for weed control in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice 131
  4.4 Experiment-4 Seeding techniques in relation to plant stand establishment and productivity of transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice 175
6 5 Summary 200
36.09 KB
7 6 Conclusions 204
18.83 KB
8 7 Literature cited 206
171 KB
9 8 Appendics 229
193.51 KB